The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO 2 , water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.
Summary1. The Eurasian steppe has long been subject to grazing by domestic ungulates at high levels, resulting in widespread deterioration of biodiversity and ecosystem services. While abundant evidence demonstrates that heavy grazing alters the ecosystem structure and function of grasslands, research on how grazing specifically affects ecosystem functioning and stoichiometry on broad scales is scarce because of a lack of adequate ungrazed reference sites. 2. We examined the effects of grazing on ecosystem functioning and C : N : P stoichiometry across a precipitation gradient along the 700 km China-Mongolia transect (CMT), covering three community types: meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe. 3. Long-term grazing has dramatically altered the C, N and P pools and stoichiometry of steppe ecosystems along the CMT. Grazing reduced the C, N and P pools in above-ground biomass and litter, while the responses in below-ground biomass and soil C, N and P pools to grazing differed substantially among community types. 4. Grazing increased N content and decreased C : N ratios in all plant compartments, suggesting accelerated N cycling. The altered C : N : P stoichiometry may be explained by changes in the composition of species and functional groups as well as increased foliar N and P contents for the same species in grazed communities. 5. Synthesis and applications. Plant stoichiometric responses to grazing ranged from large in the meadow steppe to small in the typical steppe to generally insignificant in the desert steppe, implying that different underlying mechanisms operated along the regional precipitation gradient. Our findings suggest that reducing the stocking rate and restoring the vastly degraded steppes are essential to sustain native steppe biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and biological capacity for mitigating the impact of climate change in the Inner Mongolia grassland.
Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO 2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO 2 uptake (GPP max ). The product of CUP and GPP max explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r 2 = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r 2 = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPP max than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPP max and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space. ecosystem carbon uptake | growing season length | photosynthetic capacity | spatiotemporal variability | climate extreme L arge variability exists among estimates of terrestrial carbon sequestration, resulting in substantial uncertainty in modeled dynamics of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and predicted future climate change (1). The variability in carbon sequestration is partially caused by variation in terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) (2), which is the cumulative rate over time of gross plant Significance Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP), the total photosynthetic CO 2 fixation at ecosystem level, fuels all life on land. However, its spatiotemporal variability is poorly understood, because GPP is determined by many processes related to plant phenology and physiological activities. In this study, we find that plant phenological and physiological properties can be integrated in a robust index-the product of the length of CO 2 uptake period and the seasonal maximal photosynthesis-to explain the GPP variability over space and time in response to climate extremes and during recovery after disturbance.
Despite evidence from experimental grasslands that plant diversity increases biomass production and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, it remains unclear whether this is true in natural ecosystems, especially under climatic variations and human disturbances. Based on field observations from 6,098 forest, shrubland, and grassland sites across China and predictions from an integrative model combining multiple theories, we systematically examined the direct effects of climate, soils, and human impacts on SOC storage versus the indirect effects mediated by species richness (SR), aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and belowground biomass (BB). We found that favorable climates (high temperature and precipitation) had a consistent negative effect on SOC storage in forests and shrublands, but not in grasslands. Climate favorability, particularly high precipitation, was associated with both higher SR and higher BB, which had consistent positive effects on SOC storage, thus offsetting the direct negative effect of favorable climate on SOC. The indirect effects of climate on SOC storage depended on the relationships of SR with ANPP and BB, which were consistently positive in all biome types. In addition, human disturbance and soil pH had both direct and indirect effects on SOC storage, with the indirect effects mediated by changes in SR, ANPP, and BB. High soil pH had a consistently negative effect on SOC storage. Our findings have important implications for improving global carbon cycling models and ecosystem management: Maintaining high levels of diversity can enhance soil carbon sequestration and help sustain the benefits of plant diversity and productivity.
Precipitation pulses play an important role in regulating ecosystem carbon exchange and balance of semiarid steppe ecosystems. It has been predicted that the frequency of extreme rain events will increase in the future, especially in the arid and semiarid regions. We hypothesize that large rain pulses favor carbon sequestration, while small ones cause more carbon release in the semiarid steppes. To understand the potential response in carbon sequestration capacity of semiarid steppes to the changes in rain pulse size, we conducted a manipulative experiment with five simulated rain pulse sizes (0, 5, 10, 25, and 75 mm) in Inner Mongolia steppe. Our results showed that both gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (R e ) responded rapidly (within 24 h) to rain pulses and the initial response time was independent of pulse size. However, the time of peak GEP was 1-3 days later than that of R e , which depended on pulse size. Larger pulses caused greater magnitude and longer duration of variations in GEP and R e . Differences in the response time of microbes and plants to wetting events constrained the response pattern of heterotrophic (R h ) and autotrophic (R a ) components of R e following a rain event. R h contributed more to the increase of R e in the early stage of rain pulse response, while R a played an more important role later, and determined the duration of pulse response, especially for large rain events of 410 mm. The distinct responses of ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration to increasing pulse sizes led to a threshold in rain pulse size between 10 and 25 mm, above which post wetting responses favored carbon sequestration. The disproportionate increase of the primary productivity of higher plants, compared with those in the activities of microbial decomposers to larger pulse events suggests that the carbon sequestration capacity of Inner Mongolia steppes will be sensitive to changes in precipitation size distribution rather than just precipitation amount.
Accurately quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) is essential for modelling regional-scale ecosystem water balances. This study assembled an ET data set estimated from eddy flux and sapflow measurements for 13 ecosystems across a large climatic and management gradient from the United States, China, and Australia. Our objectives were to determine the relationships among monthly measured actual ET (ET), calculated FAO-56 grass reference ET (ET o ), measured precipitation (P), and leaf area index (LAI)-one associated key parameter of ecosystem structure. Results showed that the growing season ET from wet forests was generally higher than ET o while those from grasslands or woodlands in the arid and semi-arid regions were lower than ET o . Second, growing season ET was found to be converged to within š10% of P for most of the ecosystems examined. Therefore, our study suggested that soil water storage in the nongrowing season was important in influencing ET and water yield during the growing season. Lastly, monthly LAI, P, and ET o together explained about 85% of the variability of monthly ET. We concluded that the three variables LAI, P, and ET o , which were increasingly available from remote sensing products and weather station networks, could be used for estimating monthly regional ET dynamics with a reasonable accuracy. Such an empirical model has the potential to project the effects of climate and land management on water resources and carbon sequestration when integrated with ecosystem models.
Understanding the dynamics and underlying mechanism of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is one of the key issues in global change research. In this study, we quantified the carbon fluxes in different terrestrial ecosystems in China, and analyzed their spatial variation and environmental drivers based on the long-term observation data of ChinaFLUX sites and the published data from other flux sites in China. The results indicate that gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of terrestrial ecosystems in China showed a significantly latitudinal pattern, declining linearly with the increase of latitude. However, GEP, ER, and NEP did not present a clear longitudinal pattern. The carbon sink functional areas of terrestrial ecosystems in China were mainly located in the subtropical and temperate forests, coastal wetlands in eastern China, the temperate meadow steppe in the northeast China, and the alpine meadow in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The forest ecosystems had stronger carbon sink than grassland ecosystems. The spatial patterns of GEP and ER in China were mainly determined by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas the spatial variation in NEP was largely explained by MAT. The combined effects of MAT and MAP explained 79%, 62%, and 66% of the spatial variations in GEP, ER, and NEP, respectively. The GEP, ER, and NEP in different ecosystems in China exhibited 'positive coupling correlation' in their spatial patterns. Both ER and NEP were significantly correlated with GEP, with 68% of the per-unit GEP contributed to ER and 29% to NEP. MAT and MAP affected the spatial patterns of ER and NEP mainly by their direct effects on the spatial pattern of GEP.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers