An hemodialysis population in Central Brazil was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serological methods to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection
The prevalence and genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have distinct geographical distribution. In Brazil, some African-descendants have been maintained as small isolated communities since the slavery period. In this study, HBV infection among these communities of African origin was examined. Individuals (1,058) living in 12 communities were interviewed and serum samples screened for the presence of HBV markers. HBsAg-positive sera were tested for HBV DNA by PCR and positive samples were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.5-22.3), ranging from 5.5% to 42.4%, depending on the communities studied. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that increasing age, family history of hepatitis, and sexual activity were associated significantly with this infection. HBsAg was detected in 23/1,058 (2.2%) individuals. HBV DNA was present in 2/2 of HBeAg-positive serum samples and in 18/21 (85.7%) anti-HBe-positive samples. All HBV isolates belonged to genotype A, subtype Aa. Three RFLP patterns were identified: AI (17 isolates), AIV (1 isolate), and AVI (2 isolates). These findings suggest a common introduction of HBV during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.
The aim of this multicenter, cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among incarcerated populations from twelve Brazilian prisons. The total of 3,368 individuals from twelve prisons was randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. Participants were interviewed, and provided blood samples which were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C (HCV ab). One year after the first investigation, a cohort study was conducted with 1,656 inmates who participated the cross sectional study. Positive samples were tested for the presence of HCV RNA. Out of 3,368 inmates, 520 (15.4%) were females, and 2,848 (84.6%) were males. The overall prevalence of HCV was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.9), with 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8) in females, and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1 to 3.3) in males (p<0.01). HCV RNA was detected in 51/80 (63.7%) samples. Among men prisoners, multivariate analysis of associated factors showed independent associations between HCV exposure and increasing age, inject drug use, length of incarceration, smoking hashish, sharing needle and syringe and HIV positivity. During the cohort study, 7/1,656 new cases of HCV infection were detected, and the incidence rate was 0.4/100 person-year. Once high frequency rates of specific HCV risk behaviors and new HCV infections have been identified inside prisons, effective interventions strategies such as screening, clinical evaluation and treatment to reduce the spread of HCV infection are essential.
Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A survey was conducted in
Non-injecting drug users are at high-risk for acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV), although the factors contributing to this increased risk are not known. In the present study, the overall and occult HBV infection prevalence rates were determined in a large population of non-injecting drug users in the Central-West region of Brazil. HBV genotypes and predictors of infection were also identified. A total of 852 individuals in 34 drug treatment centers were interviewed, and their serum samples were tested for the presence of HBV markers by ELISA. HBsAg and anti-HBc-positive samples were tested for HBV DNA by PCR. Samples with HBV DNA were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 14% (95% CI: 11.7-16.5). A multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that age >30 years, non-white race/ethnicity, duration of drug use >10 years, lifetime number of sexual partners >10, non-use of condoms, and HCV and HIV status were associated significantly with HBV infection. Of the 9 (1%) HBsAg-reactive samples, HBV DNA was present in 2/2 of HBeAg-positive and in 5/7 anti-HBe-positive samples. An occult HBV infection rate of 2.7% (3/110) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. All HBV DNA-positive samples were genotyped: seven were genotype A, two were genotype D, and one was genotype F. Finally, few individuals (8%) had serological evidence of a previous HBV vaccination. These findings indicate that preventive interventions are needed for both sexual and drug-related high-risk behavior. Additionally, non-injecting drug users should be targeted for HBV vaccination.
There are no data concerning the genotypic analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Brazilian dialysis centers. Serum samples from all hemodialysis patients (n = 282) in Goiânia City, Central Brazil, were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). An overall prevalence of 12.0% was found, ranging from 0 to 33.3% depending on dialysis centers. Positive samples (n = 34) were submitted to serological subtyping by monoclonal ELISA and HBV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among 30 PCR-positive samples, 26 were genotyped by use of the line probe assay technology (INNO-LiPA HBV, Innogenetics, Gent, Belgium). HBV genotypes A (50. 0%) and D (46.2%) were the most frequently found whereas genotype F (3.8%) was rare in this population. Serological subtypes adw2 (44. 1%) and ayw3 (41.2%) were dominant. By contrast, adw4 and ayw2 were found at a low frequency (2.9%). A correlation was observed in the distribution of genotypes and subtypes by dialysis center. Genotype D and subtype ayw3 were predominant in 2 hemodialysis centers whereas genotype A and subtype adw2 were predominant in the others. The findings of high HBsAg prevalence rates restricted to certain dialysis centers and the data obtained through genotyping and serological subtyping suggest HBV nosocomial transmission in these hemodialysis centers.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been a significant problem for hemodialysis patients. However this infection has declined in regions where the screening for anti-HCV in blood banks and hemodialysis-specific infection controlmeasures were adopted. In Brazil, these measures were implemented in 1993 and 1996, respectively. In addition, all studied units have implemented isolation of anti-HCV positive patients since 2000. In order to evaluate the impact of these policies in the HCV infection prevalence, accumulated incidence, and risk factors in hemodialysis population of Goiânia City, Central Brazil, all patients were interviewed and serum samples tested for HCV antibodies in 1993HCV antibodies in , 1996HCV antibodies in , 1999HCV antibodies in , and 2002. In the first six years (1993)(1994)(1995)(1996)(1997)(1998)(1999), anti-HCV prevalence increased from 28.2 to 37.2%, however a strong decrease in positivity was detected between 1999 and 2002 (37.8 vs 16.5%) when the measures were fully implemented. Also, a decrease of the anti-HCV accumulated incidence in cohorts of susceptible individuals during 1993-2002 (71%), 1996-2002 (34.2%), and 1999-2002 (11.7%) Key words: hepatitis C -hemodialysis -prevalence -incidence -risk factors -Central Brazil Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million of people worldwide. This virus is a common cause of chronic liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality (Lauer & Walker 2001, Alberti & Benvegnu 2003, Poynard et al. 2003.HCV is efficiently transmitted by parenteral route. Therefore hemodialysis patients are at high risk of acquiring hepatitis C, because of the frequent past blood transfusion and regular vascular access (CDC 2001). In addition, HCV infected hemodialysis patients have an increased risk of death when compared with those not infected (Stehamn-Breen et al. 1998, Fabrizi et al. 2002.The prevalence of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients is usually greater than that found in general population (Fabrizi et al. 2002). On the other way, a high variability in the HCV positivity rates has been found in individuals undergoing hemodialysis, ranging from 3.4% in patients of Netherlands (Schneeberger et al. 2000), to more than 70% in Eastern Europe (Vladutiu et al. 2000). In Brazil, prevalence rates varying from 13% (Souza et al. 2003) to 64.7% (Vanderborght et al. 1995) have been reported. The screening of anti-HCV in blood banks and the adoption of hemodialysis-specific infection control measures have been implicated in the declining of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients (Djordjevic et al. 2000, Almoroth et al. 2002, Valtuille et al. 2002. In our country, the first measure has been implemented since November 1993, and the latter in the end of 1996 in compliance with news Health Ministry Standards for Renal units which are in accordance with most of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2001) recommendations. In this study, HCV infection prevalence, accu...
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