Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in normal human prostate epithelium and is highly upregulated in prostate cancer. We previously reported a series of novel small molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA. Two compounds, MIP-1072, (S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(4–iodobenzylamino)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid and MIP-1095, (S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid, were selected for further evaluation. MIP-1072 and MIP-1095 potently inhibited the glutamate carboxypeptidase activity of PSMA (Ki = 4.6 ± 1.6 and 0.24 ± 0.14 nM, respectively), and when radiolabeled with 123I exhibited high affinity for PSMA on human prostate cancer LNCaP cells (Kd = 3.8 ± 1.3 and 0.81 ± 0.39 nM, respectively). The association of [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095 with PSMA was specific; there was no binding to human prostate cancer PC3 cells, which lack PSMA, and binding was abolished by co-incubation with a structurally unrelated NAALADase inhibitor, 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (PMPA). [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095 internalized into LNCaP cells at 37 °C. Tissue distribution studies in mice demonstrated 17.3 ± 6.3 (at 1 hr) and 34.3 ± 12.7 (at 4 hr) % injected dose per gram of tissue, for [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095, respectively. [123I]MIP-1095 exhibited greater tumor uptake but slower washout from blood and non-target tissues compared to [123I]MIP-1072. Specific binding to PSMA in vivo was demonstrated by competition with PMPA in LNCaP xenografts, and the absence of uptake in PC3 xenografts. The uptake of [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095 in tumor bearing mice was corroborated by SPECT/CT imaging. PSMA-specific radiopharmaceuticals should provide a novel molecular targeting option for the detection and staging of prostate cancer.
Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated molecular marker for prostate cancer. A series of glutamate-urea (Glu-urea-X) heterodimeric inhibitors of PSMA were designed and synthesized where X = epsilon-N-(o-I, m-I, p-I, p-Br, o-Cl, m-Cl, p-Cl, p-F, H)-benzyl-Lys and epsilon-(p-I, p-Br, p-Cl, p-F, H)-phenylureido-Lys. The affinities for PSMA were determined by screening in a competitive binding assay. PSMA binding of the benzyllysine series was significantly affected by the nature of the halogen substituent (IC(50) values, Cl < I = Br << F = H) and the ring position of the halogen atom (IC(50) values, p-I < o-I << m-I). The halogen atom had little affect on the binding affinity in the para substituted phenylureido-Lys series. Two lead iodine compounds were radiolabeled with (123)I and (131)I and demonstrated specific PSMA binding on human prostate cancer cells, warranting evaluation as radioligands for the detection, staging, and monitoring of prostate cancer.
This work describes a 3D, paper-based assay that can isolate subpopulations of cells based on their invasiveness (i.e., distance migrated in a hydrogel) in a gradient of concentration of oxygen (O 2 ). Layers of paper impregnated with a cell-compatible hydrogel are stacked and placed in a plastic holder to form the invasion assay. Stacking the layers of paper assembles them into 3D tissue-like constructs of defined thickness and composition. The plastic holder ensures the layers of paper are in conformal contact; this geometry allows the cells to migrate between adjacent layers through the embedded hydrogel. In most assays, the stack comprises a single layer of paper containing mammalian cells suspended in a hydrogel, sandwiched between multiple layers of paper containing only hydrogel (into which the cells migrate). Cells in the stack consume and produce small molecules; these molecules diffuse throughout the stack to generate gradients both in the stack, and between the stack and the bulk culture medium. Placing the cell-containing layer in different positions of the stack, or modifying the permeability of the holder to oxygen or proteins, alters the profile of the gradients within the stack. Physically separating the layers after culture isolates subpopulations of cells that migrated different distances, and enables their subsequent analysis or culture. Using this system, three independent cell lines derived from A549 cancer cells are shown to produce distinguishable migration behavior in a gradient of oxygen. This result is the first experimental demonstration that oxygen acts as a chemoattractant for cancer cells.
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Significance StatementThe invasion of cancerous cells from a tumor into surrounding tissues is one contribution to metastasis-a major contributor to death for patients with cancer. There is a strong link between the directed invasion of cancer cells and the gradients of molecules formed in the microenvironment of the tumor. Using a paper-based invasion assay, this work demonstrates that oxygen-a nutrient known to induce significant behavioral changes to cells within a tumor in a concentration-dependent manner-can also act as a chemoattractant, resulting in the migration of cancer cells towards higher concentrations of oxygen. This finding, and the invasion assay described, could lead to a better understanding of oxygen-based chemotaxis in cancer, and ultimately new strategies for managing metastasis.
Single amino acid chelate (SAAC) systems for the incorporation of the M(CO)(3) moiety (M = Tc/Re) have been successfully incorporated into novel synthetic strategies for radiopharmaceuticals and evaluated in a variety of biological applications. However, the lipophilicity of the first generation Tc(CO)(3)-dipyridyl complexes has resulted in substantial hepatobiliary uptake when either examined as lysine derivatives or integrated into biologically active small molecules and peptides. Here we designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel SAAC systems that have been chemically modified to promote overall Tc(CO)(3)L(3) complex hydrophilicity with the intent of enhancing renal clearance. A series of lysine derived SAAC systems containing functionalized polar imidazole rings and/or carboxylic acids were synthesized via reductive alkylation of the epsilon amino group of lysine. The SAAC systems were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc, purified, and evaluated for radiochemical stability, lipophilicity, and tissue distribution in rats. The log P values of the (99m)Tc complexes were determined experimentally and ranged from -0.91 to -2.33. The resulting complexes were stable (>90%) for at least 24 h. Tissue distribution in normal rats of the lead (99m)Tc complexes demonstrated decreased liver (<1 %ID/g) and gastrointestinal clearance (<1.5%ID/g) and increased kidney clearance (>15 %ID/g) at 2 h after injection compared to the dipyridyl lysine complex (DpK). One of the new SAAC ligands, [(99m)Tc]bis-carboxymethylimidazole lysine, was conjugated to the N-terminus of Tyr-3 octreotide and evaluated for localization in nude mice bearing AR42J xenografts to examine tissue distribution, tumor uptake and retention, clearance, and route of excretion for comparison to (111)In-DOTA-Tyr-3-octreotide and (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide. (99m)Tc-bis-(carboxymethylimidazole)-lysine-Tyr-3-octreotide exhibited significantly less liver uptake and gastrointestinal clearance compared to (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide while maintaining tumor uptake in the same mouse model. These novel chelators demonstrate that lipophilicity can be controlled and organ distribution significantly altered, opening up broad application of these novel SAAC systems for radiopharmaceutical design.
Radiolabeled benzamides are attractive candidates for targeted radiotherapy of metastatic melanoma as they bind melanin and exhibit high tumor uptake and retention. One such benzamide, N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-(4-fluoro-benzamido)-5-iodo-2-methoxy-benzamide (MIP-1145), was evaluated for its ability to distinguish melanin-expressing from amelanotic human melanoma cells, and to specifically localize to melanin-containing tumor xenografts. The binding of [ 131
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