In this paper, a novel folic acid-conjugated silica-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) photosensitizer was synthesized and characterized using various analytical instruments. The photosensitizer was further assessed with regards to its photoreactivity, cellular and hemocompatibility, cell internalization, and phototoxicity. Conjugating folic acid with TiO2-SiO2 has shown a significantly improved compatibility of the nanoparticles with the mouse fibroblast cells (L929) at 24 h. An improved compatibility with the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid cancer (KB) cells was also demonstrated, but to a slightly reduced degree. Enhanced cell internalization was well demonstrated in the TiO2-SiO2 folate nanoparticles. Upon exposure to UV light, TiO2-SiO2 folate nanoparticles maintained a high level photodynamic reactivity and yielded a 38-43% photo-killing of KB cells. The photo-killing effect increased with increasing dosage in the investigated concentration range of 50-100 μg ml(-1).
Silver-containing antimicrobial agents are used in various medical products. However, their toxicity to mammalian cells has not been sufficiently evaluated. Numerous studies have unveiled evidence of significant antimicrobial properties associated with Ag ions. In cell culture media or human body fluids, the free Ag(+) has rich opportunities to complex with Cl(-). Surprisingly, studies on the toxicity of solid form AgCl(s) to mammalian cells are quite limited. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of Ag ions and silver chloride colloids on red blood cells and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The adverse effects of silver chloride on red blood cells and hMSC were viewed by SEM and LIVE/DEAD viability staining, respectively. Among different tested chemical forms of silver, AgCl was identified to be the least cytotoxic. Moreover, a decline in the cytotoxicity of AgCl at significantly high concentrations was observed. We attributed the reduced cytotoxicity to aggregated AgCl which limited the bioavailability of free Ag(+) ions.
Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare and chronic benign inflammatory disease of the breast. Difficulties exist in the management of GLM for many front-line surgeons and medical specialists who care for patients with inflammatory disorders of the breast. This consensus is summarized to establish evidence-based recommendations for the management of GLM. Literature was reviewed using PubMed from January 1, 1971 to July 31, 2020. Sixty-six international experienced multidisciplinary experts from 11 countries or regions were invited to review the evidence. Levels of evidence were determined using the American College of Physicians grading system, and recommendations were discussed until consensus. Experts discussed and concluded 30 recommendations on historical definitions, etiology and predisposing factors, diagnosis criteria, treatment, clinical stages, relapse and recurrence of GLM. GLM was recommended as a widely accepted definition. In addition, this consensus introduced a new clinical stages and management algorithm for GLM to provide individual treatment strategies. In conclusion, diagnosis of GLM depends on a combination of history, clinical manifestations, imaging examinations, laboratory examinations and pathology. The approach to treatment of GLM should be applied according to the different clinical stage of GLM. This evidence-based consensus would be valuable to assist front-line surgeons and medical specialists in the optimal management of GLM.
Highlights Core-shell structured TiO 2 -SiO 2 nanoparticles of varying shell thickness were synthesized as photo-killing agents. The effect of the silica shell thickness on the photoreactivity, cytotoxicity, haemocompatibility and photo-killing ability of the TiO 2 nanoparticles was investigated. Strong photo-killing effect and enhanced cytocompatibility were achieved by controlling the silica shell thickness to 5.5 nm. nanoparticles, but also demonstrated an improved cell compatibility and effective photokilling ability upon the mouse fibroblast cells (L929). *Highlights (for review)
Vitamin K2 likely exerts its protective effects during osteoporosis by promoting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. However, the precise mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Autophagy maintains cell homeostasis by breaking down and eliminating damaged proteins and organelles. Increasing evidence in recent years has implicated autophagy in the development of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to verify whether vitamin K2 (VK2) can induce autophagy during the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. In the present study, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were treated with various doses of VK2 (10 −8 −10 −3 M) for 1–5 days. The results revealed no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 10 −5 M, but cell viability was reduced in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations above 10 −5 M. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were seeded in 6-well plates in complete medium supplemented with dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate and vitamin C (VC) for osteogenic differentiation. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts treated with different concentrations (10 −5 , 10 −6 and 10 −7 M) of VK2 for 24 h on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 of the differentiation protocol. It was confirmed that VK2 promoted osteoblast differentiation and mineralization by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red staining. Using western blotting, immunofluorescence, monodansylcadaverine staining and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was observed that VK2 induced autophagy in osteoblasts. The results revealed that VK2 (1 µM) significantly increased ALP activity and the conversion of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3-α (LC3)II to LC3I in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts (P<0.05) at every time point. The number of fluorescent bodies and the intensity increased with VK2, and decreased following treatment with 3-MA+VK2. There was an increase in the mRNA expression levels of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 in VK2-treated cells (P<0.01). The present study further confirmed the association between autophagy and osteoblast differentiation and mineralization through treatment with an autophagy inhibitor [3-methyladenine (3-MA)]. Osteoblasts treated with 3-MA exhibited significant inhibition of ALP activity and osteogenic differentiation (both P<0.05). In addition, ALP activity and osteogenesis in the VK2+3-MA group was lower compared with VK2-treated cells (P<0.05 for both). The present study confirmed that VK2 stimulated autophagy in MC3T3 cells to promote differentiation and mineralization, which may be a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are closely associated with the progression of GC-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) by inhibiting osteoblast viability. However, endogenous GCs are important for bone development. In addition, previous studies have demonstrated that GCs could induce autophagy, a cytoprotective process that is protective against various stressors. In the present study, the aim is to explore whether osteoblasts exhibited dose-dependent viability in the presence of GCs due to autophagy. hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts were treated with various doses of dexamethasone (DEX; 10−8-10−4 M) for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The results revealed a biphasic effect of DEX on the viability of hFOB 1.19 cells; a high dose of DEX (≥10−6 M) accelerated cell apoptosis, while a low dose of DEX (10−8 M) increased cell viability. Furthermore, significantly increased autophagy was observed in the low dose DEX treatment group, as indicated by the expression of the autophagy-associated proteins beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, and the detection of autophagosomes. Another finding was that DEX upregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was decreased by the autophagy agonist rapamycin. The increase in autophagy and cell viability associated with low-dose DEX (10−8 M) was suppressed by the ROS scavenger catalase and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, the results revealed that GCs affected osteoblast viability in a dose-dependent manner. A low dose of GCs increased osteoblast viability by inducing autophagy via intracellular ROS. The results indicate that autophagy may be a novel mechanism by which osteoblasts survive GC exposure and provide a potential therapeutic target for treating GIOP.
Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators in many types of cancer, including osteosarcoma. miR-342-3p has emerged as an important cancer-related miRNA in several types of cancers. However, the functional significance of miR-342-3p in osteosarcoma is unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate whether miR-342-3p is dysregulated in osteosarcoma and to explore the biological function of miR-342-3p in regulating cellular processes of osteosarcoma cells. We found that miR-342-3p expression was significantly decreased in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-342-3p inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. In contrast, the inhibition of miR-342-3p exhibited the opposite effect. Astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was identified as one of the target genes of miR-342-3p in osteosarcoma cells by bioinformatics analysis, dual-luciferase reporter assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Overexpression of miR-342-3p also inhibited the Wnt and nuclear factor κB signaling pathways. Moreover, overexpression of AEG-1 partially rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-342-3p mediated on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Overall, our results show that miR-342-3p inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells through targeting AEG-1, suggesting a potential target for the development of miRNA-based therapy for osteosarcoma.
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