Objective To establish a maximum tolerated dose of superselective intraarterial cerebral infusion (SIACI) of Cetuximab after osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with mannitol, and examine safety of the procedure in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Methods A total of 15 patients with recurrent malignant glioma were included in the current study. The starting dose of Cetuximab was 100 mg/m(2) and dose escalation was done to 250 mg/m(2). All patients were observed for 28 days post-infusion for any side effects. Results There was no dose-limiting toxicity from a single dose of SIACI of Cetuximab up to 250 mg/m(2) after osmotic BBB disruption with mannitol. A tolerable rash was seen in 2 patients, anaphylaxis in 1 patient, isolated seizure in 1 patient, and seizure and cerebral edema in 1 patient. Discussion SIACI of mannitol followed by Cetuximab (up to 250 mg/m(2)) for recurrent malignant glioma is safe and well tolerated. A Phase I/II trial is currently underway to determine the efficacy of SIACI of cetuximab in patients with high-grade glioma.
The deployment of PEDs with concurrent partially dense coiling is safe and efficacious. This technique achieved early complete occlusion and endovascular reconstruction of the parent vessel, without inducing mass effect. Favorable midterm clinical results were observed in all patients.
Cerebral bypass operation is a technically challenging operation that requires excellent surgical visibility and efficient ergonomics to minimize complications and maximize successful revascularization. Despite the operative microscope's utilization for the past two generations, there remains a need for continued improvement in operative visualization and surgical ergonomics.
To report the positives and negatives of our initial experience using a novel 4 K high-definition (4K-HD) 3-dimensional (3D) exoscope (EX) for cranial bypass surgery.
A retrospective review over 6 mo was performed of all patients who have undergone cerebral bypass surgery at a single institution using the 4K-HD 3D EX. Advantages and disadvantages of the EX and clinical outcome of the patients were assessed.
A total of 5 patients underwent cerebral EC-IC bypass surgery with no EX-related complications and successful revascularization. The lightweight design of the EX allowed for easy instrument maneuverability as well as uncomplicated surgical set up in the operating room. The assistance of the cosurgeon was significantly more efficient compared to that of the operating microscope. The large monitor allowed for an immersive, collaborative, and valuable educational surgical experience.
Using the EX for cerebral bypass surgery, with 3D ultra-high-definition optics, enhancements of ergonomics, and improved training, we believe that the 3D 4K-HD EX may represent the next generation of operative scopes in microneurosurgery.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Current treatment of acute TBI includes surgical intervention when needed, followed by supportive critical care such as optimizing cerebral perfusion, preventing pyrexia, and treating raised intracranial pressure. While effective in managing the primary injury to the brain and skull, these treatment modalities do not address the complex secondary cascades that occur at a cellular level following initial injury and greatly affect the ultimate neurologic outcome. These secondary processes involve changes in ionic flux, disruption of cellular function, derangement of blood flow and the blood-brain barrier, and elevated levels of free radicals. Over the past few decades, numerous pharmacologic agents and modalities have been investigated in an attempt to interrupt these secondary processes. No neuroprotective agents currently exist that have been proven to improve neurologic outcome following TBI. However, these trials have contributed significantly to the understanding of the clinical sequelae of TBI and to improvements in the quality of care for TBI. With the experience and insights that have been accrued with the trials to date, we will be able to optimize future trial designs and refine established neurologic endpoints to better identify new therapeutic agents and further improve neurologic outcomes from this often devastating condition.
We describe imaging changes associated with 177Lu-octreotate PRRT of relapsing ENB. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing neuropathological changes associated with this treatment. PRRT is a promising therapeutic option to improve the disease control, and potentially, the survival of patients with refractory ENB.
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