The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth performance parameters, antioxidant capacity, immune response, and hepatic and renal functions of APRI growing rabbits fed diets supplemented with zinc-oxide (ZnO) or nano-zinc oxide (ZnO-NP). A number of 60 weaned rabbits (5 wk of age) were divided into three experimental groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (G1), 50 mg ZnO (G2), and 30 mg ZnO-NP (G3) per kg during the growing period (5 to 13 wk of age). Live body weight, feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index and mortality rate were recorded. Biochemical parameters, antioxidant and immunity status were determined at 13 wk of age. Results show that dietary ZnO or ZnO-NP addition increased (P<0.05) growth performance parameters, serum high-density lipoproteins, glutathione, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase, immunoglobulins. Concentrations of triglycerides and MDA in blood serum reduced (P<0.05) in treatment groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with ZnO or ZnO-NP can enhance growth performance, lipid profile, immunity and antioxidant status of growing rabbits under heat stress conditions.
Application of assisted reproductive technology in camelidea, such as artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer, has been slow in comparison to that for other livestock species. In Egypt, there are few attempts to establish in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) techniques in dromedary camel. The present study was carried out to produce Sudanese camel embryos using in vitro matured oocytes and epididymal spermatozoa. Dromedary camel ovaries were collected from abattoirs and then, the oocytes were aspirated from all the visible follicles on the ovarian surface (~2-8 mm in a diameter). Meanwhile, Fetal Dromedary Camel Serum (FDCS) was obtained from camel fetuses after slaughtering. Thereafter, only Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in the Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199) complemented with 10% FDCS. Spermatozoa required for in vitro fertilization were collected from testes (epididymal cauda) of the slaughtered camel bulls. The results clearly showed that the maturation rate of oocytes at metaphase II was about 59.5% while the fertilization rate was around 70.4%. Intriguingly, the embryo rates determined were 13.1%, in 2-cell; 0.0%, in 4-cell; 34.7%, in 8-16% cell; 39.1%, in morula and 13.1% in a blastocyst stage. This study represented a successful in vitro production of Sudanese dromedary camel embryos from epididymal sperm cells and in vitro matured oocytes recovered from slaughtered camels.
Buffaloes ovaries obtained from slaughterhouses were used to study the influence of the oocyte collection techniques (dissection, aspiration, slicing, and aspiration plus slicing) on the availability of oocytes quantity and quality of buffalo oocytes. The oocytes were collected aseptically from the ovaries by the four methods. In all methods, oocytes were classified into 5 classes on the basis of the morphology of compact, denuded, degenerated, expanded and partial denuded oocytes. Results showed that the oocyte recovery rate from ovaries was higher (P<0.05) by aspiration plus slicing (84.67%) and slicing (83.30%) than aspiration (72.68%), while dissection technique showed the lowest (P<0.05) oocyte recovery rate (52.04%). Percentage of cumulus oocyte complexes collected by slicing (63.17%) was higher (P<0.05) than aspiration (51.34 %), aspiration plus slicing (51.24%) and dissection (42.03%). The corresponding percentages of expanded cumulus oocytes were 29.93, 30.31, 27.55 and 32.68%, respectively (P<0.05). Such results may indicate efficacy of slicing technique as a collection method on quantity and quality of buffalo oocytes.
This study was carried out at a private farm, Dakahlia governorate during the period from November 2013 to April 2014 to evaluate the effects of oxytocin (OXY) and prostaglandin (PG) on uterine involution and consequently on postpartum productive and reproductive performance of primiparous Friesian cows. Total of 15 primiparous cows with live body weight (380-420 kg were divided into 3 groups, 5 in each. Animals were i.m. injected with saline solution (control, G1), 50 IU OXY (G2) and 3 ml PG (Estromate, G3) within 12 h post-calving. Routine examination of the genitalia per rectum was conducted once weekly to judge the uterine involution by ultrasonography to determine diameter of uterine horns (gravid and non-gravid), cervical diameter and vaginal length on day 10, 15, 22, 27 and 32 of postpartum period. Animals were hand milked twice/day and those in heat were naturally inseminated and pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation on day 45 postinsemination. Postpartum 1 st estrus (PPFEI) and service (PPFSI) intervals, estrus (ER) and conception (CR) rates, days open (DO), number of services/conception (NSC), and service period length (SPL) were recorded. Results showed that diameter of non-gravid horns showed insignificant group differences. Diameter of gravid horns was wider (P<0.05) in G1 than in G2 and G3 from 10-up to 32-day postpartum, indicating earlier uterine horn symmetry in treatment than in control groups. Postpartum interval required for symmetry in gravid and non-gravid horns was shorter in G3 and G2 (21.4 and 20.9 d) than in G1 (28.7 d), respectively. Cervical closure was completed earlier in G2 (22.8 d, P<0.05) and in G3 (25.5 d, P≥0.05) than in G1 (28.6 d). Resumption of vaginal length had similar interval in all experimental groups, ranging between 18 and 19 d. Cows in G2 showed higher (P<0.05) ER (100 vs. 80%) and CR (80 vs. 60%), lower NSC (1.75 vs. 2.30 serv.), and shorter SPL (15.75 vs. 28.33 d) than in G1. Cows in G3 increased ER (80 vs. 100%) and decreased DO (52.33 vs. 98.0 d) as compared to G1, but insignificantly improved other reproductive parameters. Milk yield as total or daily milk yield was not affected significantly by treatment. Based on the foregoing results, oxytocin injection (i.m.) within 12 h postcalving produced early uterine involution and markedly affect in positive trends on the reproductive performance of Friesian cows without pronounced effect on milk yield.
The current study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ovarian status in breeding and non-breeding season on the ovarian biometry, oocyte yield and oocyte quality of Baladi goats. Ovaries were collected by slicing from slaughter houses and classified with or without CLs during breeding (September-December) and non-breeding (March-July) seasons. Ovaries were weighed and measured, while oocytes were recoverded, yielded and categorized with or without CLs in breeding or non-breeding seasons. Results showed that ovarian weight and biometry (length, width and thickness) were higher in breeding than in non-breeding season, but the differences were significantly only for width. Number of follicles and oocytes/ovary (P<0.001) as well as number/ovary and proportion of oocytes at compact (P<0.0001) and denuded (P<0.05) stage were higher in breeding season than in non-breeding one. Number of degenerated oocytes/ovary was not affected significantly by season, but its proportion was lower (P<0.001) in breeding than in non-breading season. Number/ovary and proportion of partial denuded oocytes and proportion of denuded oocyte were not affected significantly by breeding season. Weight and biometry of ovaries was higher on ovaries bearing CL (CL+) than in non-bearing ones (CL-). Only ovarian width was higher (P<0.001) by 38% in CL+ than in CL-group. Ovaries bearing CL had higher (P<0.05) total follicles and oocyte yield/ovary (P<0.01) as well as oocyte recovery rate (P<0.05) than CL-ovaries. Number of compact, denuded and partial denuded oocytes/ovary was not affected by CL bearing. Number of compact oocytes tended to be greater on ovaries without than with CL. Number of degenerated oocytes/ovary was higher (P<0.05) on CL+ ovaries. Proportion of all oocyte categories was not affected by bearing CL. Finally, the effect of interaction between breeding season and bearing CL on all parameters studied was not significant. In conclusion, the goat ovaries without CL in breeding season yielded better oocyte quality than in non-breeding season, in term of COCs proportion. During non-breeding season, goats oocytes were available to be harvested from slaughtered goat does with acceptable yield and quality.
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