In vitro detection technique Raman spectroscopy (Rs), in one number times another Rs based expert ways of art and so on, are useful instruments for cancer discovery. top gave greater value to Raman spectroscopy sers is a relatively new careful way for in vitro and in vivo discovery that takes away bad points of simple Raman spectroscopy (Rs). Raman spectroscopy (RS) and in particular, multiple RS-based techniques are useful for cancer detection. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a relatively new method for both in vitro and in vivo detection, which eliminates the drawbacks of simple RS. Using nanoparticles has elevated the sensitivity and specificity of SERS. SERS has the potential to increase sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution in cancer detection, especially in cooperation with other diagnostic imaging tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET-scan polyethylene terephthalate. Developing a hand held instrument for detecting cancer or other illnesses may also be feasible by using SERS. Frequently, novel nanoparticles are used in SERS. With a focus on nanoparticle utilization, we review the benefits of RS in cancer detection and related biomarkers. With a focus on nanoparticles utilizations, the benefits of RS in cancer detection and related biomarkers were reviewed. In addition, Raman applications to detect some of prevalent were discussed. Also more investigated cancers such as breast and colorectal cancer, multiple nanostructures and their possible special biomarkers, especially as SERS nano-tag have been reviewed. The main purpose of this article is introducing of most popular nanotechnological approaches in cancer detection by using Raman techniques. Moreover, have been caught up on detection and reviewed some of the most prevalent and also more investigated cancers such as breast, colorectal cancer, multiple intriguing nanostructures, especially as SERS nano-tag, special cancer biomarkers and related approaches. The main purpose of this article is to introduce the most popular nanotechnological approaches in cancer detection by using Raman techniques.
In the current chapter, achievement of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) network within the matrix via various kinds of electric fields (AC and DC) was evaluated. In this case, alignment mechanism of CNTs within the matrix and two useful techniques for justification of CNT alignment throughout the matrix were examined and presented, respectively. Afterward, effective factors in matter of CNT alignment and applicable procedures for fabrication of nanocomposites containing aligned CNTs were studied and presented, respectively. At the end, significant effects of CNT alignment on overall properties of nanocomposites that include electrical and mechanical properties were evaluated. Achieved results revealed that alignment of CNTs within the matrix can lead to significant improvement in the electrical and mechanical properties of nanocomposites at the same filler loading compared with randomly distribution of CNTs within the matrix, while production steps and conditions can also highly affect the outcome data.
Despite the advances that have been achieved in developing wound dressings to date, wound healing still remains a challenge in the healthcare system. None of the wound dressings currently used clinically can mimic all the properties of normal and healthy skin. Electrospinning has gained remarkable attention in wound healing applications because of its excellent ability to form nanostructures similar to natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Electrospun dressing accelerates the wound healing process by transferring drugs or active agents to the wound site sooner. This review provides a concise overview of the recent developments in bioactive electrospun dressings, which are effective in treating acute and chronic wounds and can successfully heal the wound. We also discuss bioactive agents used to incorporate electrospun wound dressings to improve their therapeutic potential in wound healing. In addition, here we present commercial dressings loaded with bioactive agents with a comparison between their features and capabilities. Furthermore, we discuss challenges and promises and offer suggestions for future research on bioactive agent-loaded nanofiber membranes to guide future researchers in designing more effective dressing for wound healing and skin regeneration.
Today, nanomedicine seeks to develop new polymer composites to overcome current problems in diagnosing and treating common diseases, especially cancer. To achieve this goal, research on polymer composites has expanded so that, in recent years, interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists have been expanding day by day. The synthesis and applications of bioactive GQD-based polymer composites have been investigated in medicine and biomedicine. Bioactive GQD-based polymer composites have a special role as drug delivery carriers. Bioactive GQDs are one of the newcomers to the list of carbon-based nanomaterials. In addition, the antibacterial and anti-diabetic potentials of bioactive GQDs are already known. Due to their highly specific surface properties, π-π aggregation, and hydrophobic interactions, bioactive GQD-based polymer composites have a high drug loading capacity, and, in case of proper correction, can be used as an excellent option for the release of anticancer drugs, gene carriers, biosensors, bioimaging, antibacterial applications, cell culture, and tissue engineering. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in using bioactive GQD-based polymer composites in drug delivery, gene delivery, thermal therapy, thermodynamic therapy, bioimaging, tissue engineering, bioactive GQD synthesis, and GQD green resuscitation, in addition to examining GQD-based polymer composites.
Clay nanoparticles are among the most applicable and cost-affordable materials, all of which have a variety of applications in case of medical science. In this chapter, key characteristics of the clay nanoparticles along with their major groups, structure, morphology, and physicochemical properties were evaluated. Thereafter, the applications of clay nanoparticles in the field of nanocomposite, polymeric matrices, and medicine were investigated, while specimen production procedures were also reviewed. The main focus of this chapter is to investigate the applications of clay nanoparticles in bio-and medical science. In fact, organically modified clay nanoparticles (organoclays) are an attractive class of hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials with potential applications in case of polymer nanocomposites, rheological properties modification, and drug delivery carrier.
Rapid distribution of viral‐induced diseases and weaknesses of common diagnostic platforms for accurate and sensitive identification of infected people raises an urgent demand for the design and fabrication of biosensors capable of early detection of viral biomarkers with high specificity. Accordingly, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as artificial antibodies prove to be an ideal preliminary detection platform for specific identification of target templates, with superior sensitivity and detection limit (DL). MIPs detect the target template with the “lock and key” mechanism, the same as natural monoclonal antibodies, and present ideal stability at ambient temperature, which improves their practicality for real applications. Herein, a 2D MIP platform consisting of decorated graphene oxide with the interconnected complex of polypyrrole‐boronic acid is developed that can detect the trace of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) antigen in aquatic biological samples with ultrahigh sensitivity/specificity with DL of 0.326 and 11.32 fg mL –1 using voltammetric and amperometric assays, respectively. Additionally, the developed MIP shows remarkable stability, selectivity, and accuracy toward detecting the target template, which paves the way for developing ultraspecific and prompt screening diagnostic configurations capable of detecting the antigen in 1 min or 20 s using voltammetric or amperometric techniques.
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