Urolithiasis is relatively common in children, and identifiable predisposing factors for stone formation, including metabolic and structural derangements, can be established in most cases. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common cause of kidney stone formation. The pathophysiological mechanism of urolithiasis in reflux is related to urinary tract infection and urinary stasis, both of which promote urinary crystal formation, but metabolic causes, such as crystallurias (mostly hypercalciuria), may also be involved in this process. However, few studies on urinary calcium and uric acid excretion in children with VUR have been conducted. We have studied the frequency of hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria in children with VUR and compared the results with those from a control group. The VUR group comprised 108 children with VUR (19 boys, 89 girls; age range 3 months to 12 years), and the control group comprised 110 healthy children without any history of reflux or urinary tract infection (30 boys, 80 girls; age range 2 months to 12 years). Fasting urine was analyzed for the calcium/creatinine (Ca/Cr) and uric acid/creatinine (UA/Cr) ratios. Hypercalciuria was more frequently diagnosed in the VUR patients than in the control group (21.3 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.0001). Significant differences between the two groups were also found for the mean Ca/Cr and UA/Cr ratios (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No differences were found in the urinary Ca/Cr or UA/Cr ratios related to VUR grading or unilateral/bilateral VUR in the patient group, with the exception of those for hypercalciuria and mild VUR (P = 0.03). The association of urinary stones and microlithiasis in the VUR group was 29.6%. Our results demonstrate that the frequency of hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria was higher in pediatric patients with VUR than in healthy children. Knowing this relationship, preventive and therapeutic interventions for stone formation in VUR could be greatly expanded.
The incidence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the general population is less than 1%, but it is high in families with reflux. The reported prevalence of VUR among siblings of index patients with reflux has ranged from 4.7% to 51%. Reflux carries an increased risk of pyelonephritis and long-term renal impairment. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related incidence and severity of reflux, and the frequency of associated renal parenchymal damage in siblings of children with reflux in order to assess the use of screening at different ages. Between October 1994 and February 2003, 40 siblings of 34 index patients were screened with direct voiding cystography. 99( m ) technetium (Tc)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) nuclear renal scans were performed in siblings with VUR to detect renal scarring. The cystograms were interpreted as showing the presence or absence of VUR and the DMSA scan as symmetrical or asymmetrical differential function, with or without renal scarring. Of 40 siblings, 17 had VUR, representing an incidence of 42.5%. The mean age at study entry of the 15 boys and 25 girls was 63 months (range 6 months to 12 years). The majority of siblings with abnormal DMSA scans were asymptomatic. Reflux was unilateral in 12 siblings and bilateral in 5. Of the 17 refluxing siblings (22 refluxing ureters), 7 (41.17%) had a history of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI). The frequency of VUR was nearly equal in siblings over 6 years and those younger than 6 years. Of the 17 siblings with VUR, 16 had DMSA scintigraphy. Of these, 5 were normal and 11 (68.75%) showed abnormalities (7 asymmetrical differential function and 4 parenchymal defect), which was bilateral in 7 and unilateral in 4. In conclusion, this study confirms a significant overall incidence of VUR and renal parenchymal damage in the siblings of patients with known reflux. The prevalence of reflux in older siblings is similar to that in younger siblings. Our review suggests that all siblings over 6 years should undergo a screening cystogram, even in the absence of urinary tract infection. DMSA scintigraphy of asymptomatic siblings appears to be beneficial in preventing renal injury.
Chronic hemodialysis may lead to abnormalities in the serum levels of some trace elements in children with CRF that increase in severity with increasing duration of hemodialysis. Deficiencies of these trace elements--zinc in particular--may contribute to various conditions and symptoms in children undergoing chronic hemodialysis.
We conducted a retrospective study on children with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) to evaluate the clinical course and outcome of children with steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS). The medical records of 226 children, median 3.46 years (min 1.00, max 15.08) who referred to our clinics with SSNS between January 1978 and September 2005 were reviewed and entered into the study. Minimum duration of follow-up was 5 years and maximum 20 years (median 7.25 years). Of 226 patients who were treated with corticosteroids, 38 (16.8%) had no relapse but the remaining 188 (83.2%) patients experienced several relapses of which 128 patients (56.6%) required additional immunosuppressive agents for the remission. Of these, 122 (95%) were treated with levamisole, 22 (17%) with cyclosporine, 36 (28%) with cyclophosphamide, and ten (7.8 %) treated with mycophenolate mofetil. Several patients had to switch from one medication to others due to lack of response. On the last follow-up visit, 64(28.3%) patients were still under treatment, some patients had taken all of the above-mentioned drugs but still had multiple recurrences. Only 103 (45.5%) patients were in remission off the drug more than 3 years. This study shows that nearly one-third of pediatric patients with SSNS experience frequent relapses despite the combination of multiple immunosuppressive medications, which may continue until adulthood.
Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) has been said to be the most sensitive index for differentiating prerenal failure (PRF) from intrinsic renal failure (IRF). However, there are several instances of high FENa (>2%) in cases of PRF and low FENa (<1%) in IRF patients. In contrast, the fractional excretion of urea nitrogen (FEUN) is primarily dependent on passive forces, and many confounding variables that affect FENa have little effect on FEUN, if any. To compare FEUN with FENa, pediatric patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) were prospectively evaluated by history, physical examination, and obtaining appropriate laboratory data during a 1-year interval. Diagnosis of PRF or IRF was made in each patient, and renal failure indices were compared between two groups using chi-square and t test, as appropriate. Probability value (P value) <0.05 was considered significant. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots for FEUN and FENa were drawn to compare the discriminative power of each index. Forty-three patients were enrolled in the study. There were 27 patients in the PRF and 16 in the IRF group. FENa was 2+/-0.4 in PRF and 4.5+/- 1% in IRF patients (P<0.05), and low FENa (<1%) was only seen in 44.4% of PRF patients, which was not statistically different from those with IRF (P>0.05). FEUN was 23.6+/- 4.9% in PRF and 41.6+/-4.8% in IRF patients (P<0.05), and low FEUN (<35%) was seen in 77.8% of the PRF group (P<0.05). Cutoff values of 30% and 1.6% were reached for FEUN and FENa, respectively. In conclusion, FEUN <35% had higher sensitivity and specificity than FENa <1% for differentiation of PRF from IRF.
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and histopathological features and outcome of children with lupus nephritis (LN). Of 84 children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we retrospectively studied 58 children (69%) under 15 years of age with biopsy-proven LN who had been followed between October 1989 and January 2005. The mean age at diagnosis or initial referral was 10.6±2.25 years, and the mean followup was 5.3±4.1 years. Class IV LN was observed in 34 (58.6%) patients. The 5-year patient and renal survival rates were 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively, in the total group, and 75 and 85.8%, respectively, in patients with Class IV LN. No independent predictor of unfavorable outcome, including renal histology, was detected by multivariate analysis. The mid-term patient and the renal survival rates of Iranian children with biopsy-proven LN are high. Within 5 years of follow-up, renal histology was not a predictor for survival.
PH type 2 is caused by decreased activity of GRHPR enzyme that eventually leads to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. Here, we describe an Iranian pediatric patient with PH2 and early ESRD development who received recommended treatment by undergoing isolated kidney transplantation. Diagnosis criteria included a history of reoccurring calcium oxalate renal stones and elevated oxalate levels combined with liver biopsy and decreased enzymatic activity at age five. ESRD prompted transplantation and was performed at age nine. On Day 12 post-op, his serum creatinine level increased. A graft biopsy showed calcium oxalate crystal deposits in renal tubes with no evidence of acute rejection, which resolved with intensive hydration and administration of a potassium citrate solution. Subsequent biopsies confirmed results found in first biopsy. Despite the immunosuppressive therapy, his serum creatinine level increased again after 11 months. Renal tubular obstruction then led to graft nephrectomy. Pathological analysis of tissue confirmed findings of past biopsies. This was a very rare case of early ESRD in PH2 resulting in a failed isolated kidney transplant. As the GRHPR enzyme is predominantly expressed in liver, we suggest a combined liver-kidney transplant may be beneficial in patients with PH2.
Background: The effective relief of renal colic patients with low complications is one of the important concerns of emergency physicians. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of injectable ketamine as an alternative to routine drugs in the relief of pain in patients with renal colic. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on patients who had suffered kidney pain due to kidney stones in 2017, referred to Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the first group received intravenous ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) and the second group received intravenous morphine (0.1 mg/kg) in a double-blind form. Finally, the mean pain was evaluated before injection, after 10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes as the initial result while the side effects were considered as secondary results. Results: In this study, 135 patients with renal colic participate in this study. The mean pain at the time of referral to the hospital in the group receiving morphine and ketamine was 9.2 and 9.2, respectively, which did not show any significant difference. Based on these findings, there was no significant difference between the factors evaluated during the study of the two groups. Only in the ketamine group, there were 3 cases of nausea and 1 of vomiting. However, there was a significant increase in the need for additional doses of fentanyl in the morphine recipient group (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The findings suggest that the use of ketamine can produce a more rapid relief effect, and decrease the use of opioids which create various complications, including nausea and vomiting in patients, especially patients with renal colic.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers