Recently, a number of approaches to low-dose computed tomography (CT) have been developed and deployed in commercialized CT scanners. Tube current reduction is perhaps the most actively explored technology with advanced image reconstruction algorithms. Sparse data sampling is another viable option to the low-dose CT, and sparse-view CT has been particularly of interest among the researchers in CT community. Since analytic image reconstruction algorithms would lead to severe image artifacts, various iterative algorithms have been developed for reconstructing images from sparsely view-sampled projection data. However, iterative algorithms take much longer computation time than the analytic algorithms, and images are usually prone to different types of image artifacts that heavily depend on the reconstruction parameters. Interpolation methods have also been utilized to fill the missing data in the sinogram of sparse-view CT thus providing synthetically full data for analytic image reconstruction. In this paper, we introduce a deep-neuralnetwork-enabled sinogram synthesis method for sparse-view CT, and show its outperformance to the existing interpolation methods and also to the iterative image reconstruction approach.Index Terms-Deep learning, low-dose computed tomography (CT), sparse-view CT, view interpolation.
I. INTRODUCTIONW ITH increased use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) in clinics, potential radiation hazard has been alarmed , . There have been developed a host
A deep-neural-network (DNN) was successfully used to predict clinically-acceptable dose distributions from organ contours for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). To provide the next step in the DNN-based plan automation, we propose a DNN that directly generates beam fluence maps from the organ contours and volumetric dose distributions, without inverse planning. We collected 240 prostate IMRT plans and used to train a DNN using organ contours and dose distributions. After training was done, we made 45 synthetic plans (SPs) using the generated fluence-maps and compared them with clinical plans (CP) using various plan quality metrics including homogeneity and conformity indices for the target and dose constraints for organs at risk, including rectum, bladder, and bowel. The network was able to generate fluence maps with small errors. The qualities of the SPs were comparable to the corresponding CPs. The homogeneity index of the target was slightly worse in the SPs, but there was no difference in conformity index of the target, V60Gy of rectum, the V60Gy of bladder and the V45Gy of bowel. The time taken for generating fluence maps and qualities of SPs demonstrated the proposed method will improve efficiency of the treatment planning and help maintain the quality of plans.
The authors found that in CS-based image reconstructions both sampling density and data incoherence affect the image quality, and suggest that a sampling scheme should be devised and optimized by use of these indicators. With this strategic approach, one can acquire optimally sampled sparse data so that the CS-based algorithms can best perform in terms of image quality.
Cone-beam microcomputed tomography (microCT) is one of the most popular choices for small animal imaging which is becoming an important tool for studying animal models with transplanted diseases. Region-of-interest (ROI) imaging techniques in CT, which can reconstruct an ROI image from the projection data set of the ROI, can be used not only for reducing imaging-radiation exposure to the subject and scatters to the detector but also for potentially increasing spatial resolution of the reconstructed images. Increasing spatial resolution in microCT images can facilitate improved accuracy in many assessment tasks. A method proposed previously for increasing CT image spatial resolution entails the exploitation of the geometric magnification in cone-beam CT. Due to finite detector size, however, this method can lead to data truncation for a large geometric magnification. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm yields images with artifacts when truncated data are used, whereas the recently developed backprojection filtration (BPF) algorithm is capable of reconstructing ROI images without truncation artifacts from truncated cone-beam data. We apply the BPF algorithm to reconstructing ROI images from truncated data of three different objects acquired by our circular cone-beam microCT system. Reconstructed images by use of the FDK and BPF algorithms from both truncated and nontruncated cone-beam data are compared. The results of the experimental studies demonstrate that, from certain truncated data, the BPF algorithm can reconstruct ROI images with quality comparable to that reconstructed from nontruncated data. In contrast, the FDK algorithm yields ROI images with truncation artifacts. Therefore, an implication of the studies is that, when truncated data are acquired with a configuration of a large geometric magnification, the BPF algorithm can be used for effective enhancement of the spatial resolution of a ROI image.
In the future network with Internet of Things (IoT), each of the things communicates with the others and acquires information by itself. In distributed networks for IoT, the energy efficiency of the nodes is a key factor in the network performance. In this paper, we propose energy-efficient probabilistic routing (EEPR) algorithm, which controls the transmission of the routing request packets stochastically in order to increase the network lifetime and decrease the packet loss under the flooding algorithm. The proposed EEPR algorithm adopts energy-efficient probabilistic control by simultaneously using the residual energy of each node and ETX metric in the context of the typical AODV protocol. In the simulations, we verify that the proposed algorithm has longer network lifetime and consumes the residual energy of each node more evenly when compared with the typical AODV protocol.
Imaging plays a vital role in radiation therapy and with recent advances in technology considerable emphasis has been placed on cone-beam CT ͑CBCT͒. Attaching a kV x-ray source and a flat panel detector directly to the linear accelerator gantry has enabled progress in target localization techniques, which can include daily CBCT setup scans for some treatments. However, with an increasing number of CT scans there is also an increasing concern for patient exposure. An intensityweighted region-of-interest ͑IWROI͒ technique, which has the potential to greatly reduce CBCT dose, in conjunction with the chord-based backprojection-filtration ͑BPF͒ reconstruction algorithm, has been developed and its feasibility in clinical use is demonstrated in this article. A nonuniform filter is placed in the x-ray beam to create regions of two different beam intensities. In this manner, regions outside the target area can be given a reduced dose but still visualized with a lower contrast to noise ratio. Image artifacts due to transverse data truncation, which would have occurred in conventional reconstruction algorithms, are avoided and image noise levels of the low-and highintensity regions are well controlled by use of the chord-based BPF reconstruction algorithm. The proposed IWROI technique can play an important role in image-guided radiation therapy.
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