Abstract-This article addresses the market-changing phenomenon of the Internet of Things (IoT), which relies on the underlying paradigm of machine-to-machine (M2M) communications to integrate a plethora of various sensors, actuators, and smart meters across a wide spectrum of businesses. The M2M landscape features today an extreme diversity of available connectivity solutions which − due to the enormous economic promise of the IoT − need to be harmonized across multiple industries. To this end, we comprehensively review the most prominent existing and novel M2M radio technologies, as well as share our first-hand real-world deployment experiences, with the goal to provide a unified insight into enabling M2M architectures, unique technology features, expected performance, and related standardization developments. We pay particular attention to the cellular M2M sector employing 3GPP LTE technology. This work is a systematic recollection of our many recent research, industrial, entrepreneurial, and standardization efforts within the contemporary M2M ecosystem.
The use of extremely high frequency (EHF) or millimeter-wave (mmWave) band has attracted significant attention for the next generation wireless access networks. As demonstrated by recent measurements, mmWave frequencies render themselves quite sensitive to "blocking" caused by obstacles like foliage, humans, vehicles, etc. However, there is a dearth of analytical models for characterizing such blocking and the consequent effect on the signal reliability. In this paper, we propose a novel, general, and tractable model for characterizing the blocking caused by humans (assuming them to be randomly located in the environment) to mmWave propagation as a function of system parameters like transmitter-receiver locations and dimensions, as well as density and dimensions of humans. Moreover, the proposed model is validated using a ray-launcher tool. Utilizing the proposed model, the blockage probability is shown to increase with human density and separation between the transmitter-receiver pair. Furthermore, the developed analysis is shown to demonstrate the existence of a transmitter antenna height that maximizes the received signal strength, which in turn is a function of the transmitter-receiver distance and their dimensions.
Millimeter-wave (mmWave) propagation is known to be severely affected by the blockage of the line-of-sight (LoS) path. In contrast to microwave systems, at shorter mmWave wavelengths such blockage can be caused by human bodies, where their mobility within environment makes wireless channel alternate between the blocked and non-blocked LoS states. Following the recent 3GPP requirements on modeling the dynamic blockage as well as the temporal consistency of the channel at mmWave frequencies, in this paper a new model for predicting the state of a user in the presence of mobile blockers for representative 3GPP scenarios is developed: urban micro cell (UMi) street canyon and park/stadium/square. It is demonstrated that the blockage effects produce an alternating renewal process with exponentially distributed non-blocked intervals, and blocked durations that follow the general distribution. The following metrics are derived (i) the mean and the fraction of time spent in blocked/non-blocked state, (ii) the residual blocked/non-blocked time, and (iii) the timedependent conditional probability of having blockage/no blockage at time t1 given that there was blockage/no blockage at time t0. The latter is a function of the arrival rate (intensity), width, and height of moving blockers, distance to the mmWave access point (AP), as well as the heights of the AP and the user device. The proposed model can be used for system-level characterization of mmWave cellular communication systems. For example, the optimal height and the maximum coverage radius of the mmWave APs are derived, while satisfying the required mean data rate constraint. The system-level simulations corroborate that the use of the proposed method considerably reduces the modeling complexity.Index Terms-Cellular networks, mmWave, human body blockage, temporal consistency, mobility of blockers. Recent work has studied the impact of LoS blockage in urban microwave systems , . However, the results do
Today, digitalization decisively penetrates all the sides of the modern society. One of the key enablers to maintain this process secure is authentication. It covers many different areas of a hyper-connected world, including online payments, communications, access right management, etc. This work sheds light on the evolution of authentication systems towards Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) starting from Single-Factor Authentication (SFA) and through Two-Factor Authentication (2FA). Particularly, MFA is expected to be utilized for human-to-everything interactions by enabling fast, user-friendly, and reliable authentication when accessing a service. This paper surveys the already available and emerging sensors (factor providers) that allow for authenticating a user with the system directly or by involving the cloud. The corresponding challenges from the user as well as the service provider perspective are also reviewed. The MFA system based on reversed Lagrange polynomial within Shamir's Secret Sharing (SSS) scheme is further proposed to enable more flexible authentication. This solution covers the cases of authenticating the user even if some of the factors are mismatched or absent. Our framework allows for qualifying the missing factors by authenticating the user without disclosing sensitive biometric data to the verification entity. Finally, a vision of the future trends in MFA is discussed.
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