Gold-based nanoparticles have been used in a number of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of gold–silica nanoshells (AuNS) in photothermal therapy (PTT) of rat gliomas. Rat alveolar macrophages (Ma) were used as nanoparticle delivery vectors. Uptake of AuNS (bare and PEGylated) was investigated in Ma. AuNS were incubated with Ma for 24 h. Phase contrast microscopy was used to visualize the distribution of loaded Ma in three-dimensional glioma spheroids. PTT efficacy was evaluated for both empty (Ma) and AuNS-loaded Ma (MaNS) in both monolayers and spheroids consisting of C6 rat glioma cells and Ma. Monolayers/spheroids were irradiated for 5 min with light from an 810-nm diode laser at irradiances ranging from 7 to 28 W cm−2. Monolayer survival was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay while PTT efficacy in spheroids was determined from growth kinetics and live/dead fluorescence microscopy. PTT efficacy was investigated in vivo using a Sprague–Dawley rat glioma model. Five rats received direct intracranial injection of a mixture of 104 C6 glioma cells and, 2 days later, an equal number of MaNS. Three rats received laser treatment (810 nm; 10 min; 1 W) while the remaining two served as controls (no laser treatment). The uptake ratio of bare to PEGylated AuNS by Ma was 4:1. A significant photothermal effect was observed in vitro, albeit at relatively high radiant exposures (2.1–4.2 kJ cm−2). PTT proved effective in vivo in preventing or delaying tumor development in the PTT-treated animals.
Background and Objective
Treatment modalities, such as hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been used in the treatment of a variety of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), either alone or as an adjuvant therapy. Macrophages loaded with gold nanoshells, which convert near-infrared light to heat, can be used as transport vectors for photothermal hyperthermia of tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined macrophage mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) and PDT on HNSCC cells.
Study Design/Materials and Methods
Gold nanoshell loaded rat macrophages either alone or combined with human FaDu squamous cells in hybrid monolayers were subjected to PTT, PDT, or a simultaneous combination of the two light treatments. Therapies were given concurrently employing two laser light sources of λ = 670 nm (PDT) and λ = 810 nm (PTT), respectively.
Significant uptake of gold nanospheres (AuNS) by rat alveolar macrophages was observed thus providing the rationale for their use as delivery vectors. Viability of the AuNS-loaded Ma was reduced to 35 and 12% of control values at an irradiance of 14 or 28 W/cm2 administered over a 5 minute period respectively. No significant cytotoxicity was observed for empty Ma for similar PTT exposure. AlPcS2a mediated PDT at a fluence level of 0.25 J/cm2 and PTT at 14 W/cm2 irradiance had little effect on cell viability for the FaDu/Ma (ratio 2:1) hybrid monolayers. In contrast, combined treatment reduced the cell viability to less than 40% at these same laser power settings.
The results of this study provide proof of concept for the use of macrophages as a delivery vector of AuNS for photothermal enhancement of the effects of PDT on squamous cell carcinoma. A significant synergy was demonstrated with combined PDT and PTT compared to each modality applied separately.
Background and Objective
Photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) has been investigated as a technique for the delivery of therapeutic agents to selective regions of the brain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PDT on the migration of systemically administered exogenous macrophages (Ma) loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles in non-tumor bearing rats.
Materials and Methods
A control group consisting of three Sprague–Dawley rats was injected with iron oxide-loaded rat alveolar Ma via jugular vein catheter while two animals were subjected to intracranial injection of iron oxide-loaded Ma. PDT-treated animals were injected with photosensitizer (AlPcS2a; 1 mg/kg i.p.) followed by light irradiation (wavelength = 670 nm; light dose = 2.5 J) 48 hours later. Light irradiation was performed through the skull. Prior to light irradiation, iron oxide-loaded Ma were administered to each animal. Animals in all groups were imaged in a 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imager to determine the extent of PDT-induced edema and to evaluate for the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. Animals were sacrificed 7 days post-Ma administration and their brains analyzed for the presence of iron oxide using Perls staining.
Significant uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by rat alveolar Ma was observed thus providing the rationale for their use as delivery vectors. Histopathological analyses failed to find evidence of iron oxide in normal rat brain. Accumulations of iron oxide-loaded Ma were observed in both MR images and histological sections of non-tumor bearing rat brain following PDT-induced disruption of the BBB.
MR imaging was shown to be useful for localizing iron-oxide loaded Ma in rat brains. Exogenous Ma are incapable of traversing the normal BBB and therefore, the use of Ma as delivery vehicles into the brain requires selective disruption of the BBB.
Plasma gel is a biologically compatible material that may serve as a suitable augmentation material in injection laryngoplasty. Further studies that examine the long-term effects in a larger number of subjects are needed.
PurposeTo analyze the outcome of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) after preoperative systemic steroid (PSS) treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyposis (NP) and to investigate and compare clinicopathological factors associated with the outcome.Materials and MethodsWe performed a retrospective chart review of 468 patients with CRS with NP who underwent primary ESS between January 2005 and October 2011. 124 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. Beginning from 2008, our clinic administered steroid preoperatively in patients of CRS with NP, thus there were 84 patients with preoperative systemic steroid (PSS group) and another 40 patients without such regimen (no PSS group). To evaluate the outcome after ESS, poor outcome and complication were analyzed according to the following parameters: age, sex, follow-up duration, eosinophilic infiltration, atopy, asthma, Lund-Mackay score, and polyp grade.ResultsThere was no significant difference in poor outcome rates between the PSS and no PSS group (35.0% vs. 47.6%, p=0.185). There was no significant difference in complication rates between the PSS and no PSS group (10% vs. 6%, p=0.468). As with the multivariate analysis of the clincopathological factors to the poor outcome rate, presence of asthma and eosinophilic infiltration were significantly related (odds ratio as 6.555 and 4.505, respectively), whereas PSS was confirmed as less likely related (odds ratio 0.611).ConclusionLow dose PSS administration does not seem to have an effect on the outcome after ESS in patients who have CRS with NP. Eosinophilic infiltration and presence of asthma are important predictors of surgical outcome.
This paper proposes a compensation method to improve the distorted space vectors when a 3-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter has an unbalanced neutral point voltage. Since both the neutral point voltage of the DC link and the space vector of a 3-level NPC inverter are closely related depending on the output load connecting state, a distorted space vector can occur when the neutral point voltage of a 3-level NPC inverter is unbalanced. The proposed method can improve the distorted space vectors by adjusting the injection time of the small and medium vectors and by modulating the amplitude of the carrier waveforms. In this paper, the proposed method is verified by both simulation and experimental results based on a 3-level NPC inverter.
This paper propose Zero Dead-time PWM method in 3-Level NPC(Neutral Point Clamped) inverter. Each switch of conventional PWM method is performs to complementary switching and semiconductor switch devices have time difference between rising time and falling time. Therefore, dead-time is applied to rising edge of switching signal for prevent short circuit fault. But this dead-time cause distortion of output voltage and current due to signal difference between reference switching and real switching. These distortions are responsible for system instable and DC-Link voltage unbalance. Whereas proposed ZDPWM method does not shows output current distortion because dead time is not exist. The validity of proposed method is verified it through simulation.
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