Menezes CWG, Soares MA, Santos JB, Assis Júnior SL, Fonseca AJ & Zanuncio JC (2012). Reproductive and toxicological impacts of herbicides used in Eucalyptus culture in Brazil on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Weed Research52, 520–525. Summary The expansion of eucalyptus tree plantations in Brazil has raised concerns that the use of herbicides may reach non‐target organisms and compromise the environment where parasitoids are used to control Lepidoptera defoliators. So, the effect of herbicides used in eucalyptus crops on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was evaluated in terms of the impact on reproduction and survival. Treatments consisted of commercial doses of the herbicides sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, glyphosate and isoxaflutole with a water‐only control. The herbicides were sprayed on the pupae of the alternative host Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which were exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis per pupa. Glufosinate and oxyfluorfen reduced parasitism and emergence of this parasitoid and were considered more harmful to the P. elaeisis females. Glyphosate and isoxaflutole resulted in higher numbers of individuals and females produced per female; thus these herbicides were less harmful to P. elaeisis and maybe used in IPM programmes in eucalyptus plantations.
O milho tem sido cultivado em duas safras anuais no Brasil e consumido por humanos e animais. O uso de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas nessa cultura pode comprometer o ambiente em função dos efeitos sobre organismos não alvos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de atrazine e nicosulfuron sobre o predador Podisus nigrispinus. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de atrazine, nicosulfuron e da mistura destes, em doses equivalentes à comercial, mais um tratamento controle à base de água. A solução com os herbicidas foi aspergida sobre ovos de dois dias de idade de P. nigrispinuse em cada um dos cinco estádios ninfais e fase adulta do inseto. A viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus diminuiu sob ação dos herbicidas, sem eles diferirem quanto ao tempo de eclosão. A sobrevivência de ninfas foi baixa sob ação dos herbicidas, sendo mais afetada negativamente sob ação da mistura destes. Para a aplicação em cada estádio, observou-se baixa sobrevivência de ninfas do primeiro ao terceiro estádio sob ação do herbicida atrazine, isolado ou em mistura, e até o segundo estádio para o nicosulfuron. Também ficou evidente em todos os demais estádios do inseto a menor seletividade à mistura dos herbicidas, em comparação ao efeito isolado. Conclui-se que ovos de P. nigrispinus são sensíveis aos herbicidas testados e que a aplicação na cultura do milho desses produtos poderá diminuir o controle biológico de pragas promovido por esse inseto.
ABSTRACT:Several studies have reported the importance of phytophagy in the history of life from predator stinkbugs. However, knowledge of the nutrients acquired by these insects, from plant materials, is scarce. The phytophagy studies of zoophytophagous predators benefit biological control programs, making them more effective, since the best resources may be offered to these insects, increasing the potential for predation and, thus obtaining, success in pest control. Thus, this study investigated the development and zoophytophagy of predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in eucalyptus seedlings, deficient in macronutrients. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and the treatments consisted of individual nitrogen omission, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur nutrient solution, where the eucalyptus seedlings were being conducted. The pupae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Teneobridae) were offered ad libitum. The results of this experiment demonstrated the importance of nutrition in plants for the development and predation of P. nigrispinus. The plants deficient in nitrogen and magnesium reduce the predation efficiency of this zoophytophagous. The omission of calcium, magnesium and sulfur adversely affected the development of this insect predator, extending its immature stages. The proper nutritional balance of the plants is essential for the success in biological control programs that use zoophytophagous predators.
Oncideres females girdle tree branches of the Fabaceae family, interrupting the sap flow and turning the wood conditions ideal for their larvae development. The bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, a species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, is widely used in the traditional medicine. The objectives were to report, for the first time, Oncideres saga (Dalman), using S. adstringens as a host and to describe the pattern of branch girdling and oviposition distribution by this insect on these branches. The diameter at the base and the length of the girdled branches were measured and the number of incisions made by the O. saga females to oviposit, per branch section (basal, median and apical), counted. The emerged specimens were counted and the diameter of the exit holes measured. The average diameter at the base of the girdled branches was 2.5 ± 0.16 cm and the length was 90.6 ± 4.6 cm. The average number of incisions per branch was 37.7 ± 2.7. Damage by O. saga can reduce the growth and cause losses on S. adstringens, a tree with great extractivism potential.,
Insect pests are limiting factors to the expansion of Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Brazil. Aphids of the species Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are a key pests in different crops and may negatively affect the growth, development and survival of plants. This paper reports the first record of M. persicae in seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla grown in a greenhouse in Diamantina, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This finding suggests the implementation of an integrated management program for this aphid, in order to prevent it from becoming a pest in Eucalyptus .
Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a germinação de sementes de Senegalia polyphylla (DC.) Britton & Rose (Fabaceae) atacadas por bruquíneos (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). Frutos dessa espécie foram coletados em São Gonçalo do Rio Preto, MG. As sementes indenes e as danificadas por bruquíneos foram submetidas aos testes de germinação em cinco tratamentos, com 100 sementes cada. O melhor percentual de germinação foi obtido nas sementes sadias e lixadas. As sementes sadias embebidas em água apresentaram baixo percentual de germinação. O ataque de bruquíneos proporcionou redução na taxa de germinação, mas não impediu que esse processo ocorresse nas sementes danificadas.
Bees are considered important pollinators due to their fidelity to plants, enabling the maintenance of gene flow between plant species. The objective of this study was to recognize the visit of bees in two Candeia species, Eremanthus erythropappus and Eremanthus incanus (Asteraceae), as well as to analyze the pollen content carried by bees in a regeneration area. Nine samplings were taken in each plant species using entomological nets. The pollen grains were obtained in 338 bees from their legs and bodies. The species Trigona spinipes, Apis mellifera, and Bombus pauloensis were most frequent. Candeias are essential in the study area because they have high adaptive potential, but besides them, other plants are also important for attracting bees searching for pollen and/or nectar.Melastomataceae, mainly Tibouchina sp., appear to be important sources of pollen. The presence, in greater quantity, of Bombus spp. in Eremanthus flowers probably occurs more by the demand for nectar, since the pollen frequency of other families such as Melastomataceae and Myrtaceae was higher. However, the use of Eremanthus spp. pollen is more frequent by A. mellifera and T. spinipes. CONCLUSIONS • The eusocial bees Bombus pauloensis, Trigona spinipes,and Apis mellifera were the ones with the highest occurrence in the two species of Eremanthus.• The pollen of Eremanthus spp. showed higher frequency in Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera.
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