Summary Background Efforts to quantify the global burden of enteric fever are valuable for understanding the health lost and the large-scale spatial distribution of the disease. We present the estimates of typhoid and paratyphoid fever burden from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017, and the approach taken to produce them. Methods For this systematic analysis we broke down the relative contributions of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers by country, year, and age, and analysed trends in incidence and mortality. We modelled the combined incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers and split these total cases proportionally between typhoid and paratyphoid fevers using aetiological proportion models. We estimated deaths using vital registration data for countries with sufficiently high data completeness and using a natural history approach for other locations. We also estimated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. Findings Globally, 14·3 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·5–16·3) cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers occurred in 2017, a 44·6% (42·2–47·0) decline from 25·9 million (22·0–29·9) in 1990. Age-standardised incidence rates declined by 54·9% (53·4–56·5), from 439·2 (376·7–507·7) per 100 000 person-years in 1990, to 197·8 (172·0–226·2) per 100 000 person-years in 2017. In 2017, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi caused 76·3% (71·8–80·5) of cases of enteric fever. We estimated a global case fatality of 0·95% (0·54–1·53) in 2017, with higher case fatality estimates among children and older adults, and among those living in lower-income countries. We therefore estimated 135·9 thousand (76·9–218·9) deaths from typhoid and paratyphoid fever globally in 2017, a 41·0% (33·6–48·3) decline from 230·5 thousand (131·2–372·6) in 1990. Overall, typhoid and paratyphoid fevers were responsible for 9·8 million (5·6–15·8) DALYs in 2017, down 43·0% (35·5–50·6) from 17·2 million (9·9–27·8) DALYs in 1990. Interpretation Despite notable progress, typhoid and paratyphoid fevers remain major causes of disability and death, with billions of people likely to be exposed to the pathogens. Although improvements in water and sanitation remain essential, increased vaccine use (including with typhoid conjugate vaccines that are effective in infants and young children and protective for longer periods) and improved data and surveillance to inform vaccine rollout are likely to drive the greatest improvements in the global burden of the disease. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
SummaryBackgroundAvailable incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents.MethodsWe established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites). We used census data and health-care records to define study catchment areas and populations. Eligible participants were either inpatients or outpatients who resided within the catchment area and presented with tympanic (≥38·0°C) or axillary temperature (≥37·5°C). Inpatients with a reported history of fever for 72 h or longer were excluded. We also implemented a health-care utilisation survey in a sample of households randomly selected from each study area to investigate health-seeking behaviour in cases of self-reported fever lasting less than 3 days. Typhoid fever and iNTS disease incidences were corrected for health-care-seeking behaviour and recruitment.FindingsBetween March 1, 2010, and Jan 31, 2014, 135 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and 94 iNTS isolates were cultured from the blood of 13 431 febrile patients. Salmonella spp accounted for 33% or more of all bacterial pathogens at nine sites. The adjusted incidence rate (AIR) of S Typhi per 100 000 person-years of observation ranged from 0 (95% CI 0–0) in Sudan to 383 (274–535) at one site in Burkina Faso; the AIR of iNTS ranged from 0 in Sudan, Ethiopia, Madagascar (Isotry site), and South Africa to 237 (178–316) at the second site in Burkina Faso. The AIR of iNTS and typhoid fever in individuals younger than 15 years old was typically higher than in those aged 15 years or older. Multidrug-resistant S Typhi was isolated in Ghana, Kenya, and Tanzania (both sites combined), and multidrug-resistant iNTS was isolated in Burkina Faso (both sites combined), Ghana, Kenya, and Guinea-Bissau.InterpretationTyphoid fever and iNTS disease are major causes of invasive bacterial febrile illness in the sampled locations, most commonly affecting children in both low and high population density settings. The development of iNTS vaccines and the introduction of S Typhi conjugate vaccines should be considered for high-incidence settings, such as those identified in this study.FundingBill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The effects of exendin-4 on Sirt1 expression as a mechanism of reducing fatty liver have not been previously reported. Therefore, we investigated whether the beneficial effects of exendin-4 treatment on fatty liver are mediated via Sirt1 in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice and related cell culture models. Exendin-4 treatment decreased body weight, serum free fatty acid (FA), and triglyceride levels in HF-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Histological analysis showed that exendin-4 reversed HF-induced hepatic accumulation of lipids and inflammation. Exendin-4 treatment increased mRNA and protein expression of Sirt1 and its downstream factor, AMPK, in vivo and also induced genes associated with FA oxidation and glucose metabolism. In addition, a significant increase in the hepatic expression of Lkb1 and Nampt mRNA was observed in exendin-4-treated groups. We also observed increased expression of phospho-Foxo1 and GLUT2, which are involved in hepatic glucose metabolism. In HepG2 and Huh7 cells, mRNA and protein expressions of GLP-1R were increased by exendin-4 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Exendin-4 enhanced protein expression of Sirt1 and phospho-AMPKα in HepG2 cells treated with 0.4 mM palmitic acid. We also found that Sirt1 was an upstream regulator of AMPK in hepatocytes. A novel finding of this study was the observation that expression of GLP-1R is proportional to exendin-4 concentration and exendin-4 could attenuate fatty liver through activation of Sirt1.
There is paucity of data regarding the geographical distribution, incidence, and phylogenetics of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhi in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we present a phylogenetic reconstruction of whole genome sequenced 249 contemporaneous S. Typhi isolated between 2008-2015 in 11 sub-Saharan African countries, in context of the 2,057 global S. Typhi genomic framework. Despite the broad genetic diversity, the majority of organisms (225/249; 90%) belong to only three genotypes, 4.3.1 (H58) (99/249; 40%), 3.1.1 (97/249; 39%), and 2.3.2 (29/249; 12%). Genotypes 4.3.1 and 3.1.1 are confined within East and West Africa, respectively. MDR phenotype is found in over 50% of organisms restricted within these dominant genotypes. High incidences of MDR S. Typhi are calculated in locations with a high burden of typhoid, specifically in children aged <15 years. Antimicrobial stewardship, MDR surveillance, and the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines will be critical for the control of MDR typhoid in Africa.
OBJECTIVETo evaluate whether there is a difference in the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and incident diabetes based on the presence of impaired fasting glucose.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA total of 7,849 individuals (5,409 men and 2,440 women) without diabetes, who underwent comprehensive health check-ups annually for 5 years, were categorized into four groups by the presence of impaired fasting glucose and NAFLD at baseline. The association between NAFLD and incident diabetes was evaluated separately in groups with normal and impaired fasting glucose.RESULTSFor 4 years, the incidence of diabetes in the NAFLD group was 9.9% compared with 3.7% in the non-NAFLD group, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of 1.33 (95% CI 1.07–1.66). However, this higher risk for diabetes only existed in the impaired fasting glucose group.CONCLUSIONSOur study suggests that NAFLD has an independent and additive effect on the development of diabetes under conditions of impaired insulin secretion.
Insulin resistance in insulin target tissues including liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is an early step in the progression towards type 2 diabetes. Accurate diagnostic parameters reflective of insulin resistance are essential. Longstanding tests for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c are useful and although the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp remains a "gold standard" for accurately determining insulin resistance, it cannot be implemented on a routine basis. The study of adipokines, and more recently myokines and hepatokines, as potential biomarkers for insulin sensitivity is now an attractive and relatively straightforward approach. This review discusses potential biomarkers including adiponectin, RBP4, chemerin, A-FABP, FGF21, fetuin-A, myostatin, IL-6, and irisin, all of which may play significant roles in determining insulin sensitivity. We also review potential future directions of new biological markers for measuring insulin resistance, including metabolomics and gut microbiome. Collectively, these approaches will provide clinicians with the tools for more accurate, and perhaps personalized, diagnosis of insulin resistance.
We report in this study that an oxoiron(IV) porphyrin complex bearing electron-deficient porphyrin ligand, (TPFPP)FeIV=O (TPFPP = meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphinato dianion), shows reactivities similar to those found in oxoiron(IV) porphyrin pi-cation radicals. In the epoxidation of olefins by the (TPFPP)FeIV=O complex, epoxides were yielded as major products; cyclohexene oxide was the sole product formed in the epoxidation of cyclohexene, and stilbenes were stereospecifically oxidized to the corresponding epoxide products. More striking results were obtained in alkane hydroxylation reactions; the hydroxylation of adamantane afforded a high degree of selectivity for tertiary C-H bonds over secondary C-H bonds, and the hydroxylation of cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane yielded a tertiary alcohol product with >99% retention of stereochemistry. The latter result demonstrates that an oxoiron(IV) porphyrin complex hydroxylates alkanes with a high stereospecificity. Isotope labeling studies performed with H218O and 18O2 in the olefin epoxidation and alkane hydroxylation reactions demonstrated that oxygen atoms in oxygenated products derived from the oxoiron(IV) porphyrin complex.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in healthy, nondiabetic Korean adults to assess the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), to compare the prevalence of NAFLD across different glycemic ranges as assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and to examine the impact of NAFLD on insulin resistance in relation to HbA1c levels. METHODS:After rigorous exclusion criteria, the fi nal number of subjects who participated in a comprehensive health status checkup program was 99,969. All subjects were classifi ed into four categories with respect to HbA1c level ( ≤ 4.9, 5.0 -5.4, 5.5 -5.9, and 6.0 -6.4 % ). We estimated the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of NAFLD according to the categorized level of HbA1C and evaluated the association of NAFLD with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in relation to the HbA1c level. RESULTS:Twenty-eight percent ( n = 28,130, 40.2 % of the men, 10.3 % of the women) of the study subjects had NAFLD. Men had a 5.83-fold (95 % confi dence interval 5.63 -6.05) increased risk for having NAFLD than did women. The risk for NAFLD increased with increasing level of HbA1c (OR 1.44, 2.62, and 7.18) when compared with the lowest quartile (HbA1C ≤ 4.9 % ). HOMA-IR increased in the NAFLD subjects as the level of HbA1c increased. The magnitude of association of HOMA-IR with HbA1c level was greater in NAFLD subjects than in non-NAFLD subjects ( P < 0.001 for interaction). These associations were consistent even after adjustment for body mass index and other metabolic components.CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD had an association with HbA1c level and insulin resistance in nondiabetic individuals, and these associations were independent of obesity and other metabolic components.
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