The role of Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter pittii, which belong to the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, in hospital-acquired infections is increasingly recognized. Here we describe a retrospective cohort study of hospital-acquired A. In Galleria mellonella assays, the survival rates were significantly higher for the larvae infected with A. nosocomialis or A. pittii than for those infected with either carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii or carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, but no differences in survival rates were observed between carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. These findings suggest intrinsic differences in virulence between non-baumannii A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex species and A. baumannii but not between carbapenem-susceptible and resistant A. baumannii.
A veterinarian in Thailand was diagnosed with COVID-19 after being sneezed on by an infected cat owned by an infected patient. Genetic study supported the hypothesis of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from the owner to the cat, and then from the cat to the veterinarian.
Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n ؍ 50), Laos (n ؍ 54), Indonesia (n ؍ 2), and Senegal (n ؍ 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase.
The Indian Ocean chikungunya epidemic re-emerged in Thailand in August 2008. Forty-five adults with laboratory-confirmed chikungunya in Songkhla province, Thailand were clinically assessed and serially bled throughout the acute and convalescent phase of the disease. Patient symptoms, antibody responses, and viral kinetics were evaluated using observational assessments, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serological assays. All subjects experienced joint pain with 42 (93%) involving multiple joints; the interphalangeal most commonly affected in 91% of the subjects. The mean duration of joint pain was 5.8 days, 11 (25%) experiencing discomfort through the duration of the study. Rash was observed in 37 (82%) subjects a mean 3.5 days post onset of symptoms. Patents were positive by PCR for a mean of 5.9 days with sustained peak viral load through Day 5. The IgM antibodies appeared on Day 4 and peaked at Day 7 and IgG antibodies first appeared at Day 5 and rose steadily through Day 24.
Overuse and misuse of antibiotics are the primary risk factors for antibiotics resistance. Inadequate professional competence of primary care physicians might exacerbate these problems in China. This retrospective study aims to document the clinical pattern of antibiotics use and its overuse and misuse rates in rural primary care institutions and to evaluate the association between antibiotics use and characteristics of physicians and their patients.
Medical records from 16 primary care hospitals in rural areas of Guizhou province, China were obtained from the Health Information System in 2018. Classification of unnecessary use, incorrect spectrum of antibiotic, escalated use of extended spectrum and combined antibiotics use was based on the Guiding Principle of Clinical Use of Antibiotics (2015, China) and guidelines from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Generalized Estimating Equations were employed to determine predictive factors for inappropriate antibiotics use.
A total of 74,648 antibiotics prescriptions were retrieved. Uncomplicated respiratory infection was the most common disease accounting for 58.6% of all prescriptions. The main antibiotic group used was penicillins (51.5%) followed by cephalosporins and macrolides (14% each). Of 57,009 patient visits, only 8.7% of the antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Combined use, escalated use of extended spectrum antibiotics, incorrect spectrum and unnecessary antibiotics use was found in 7.8%, 1.9%, 4.3% and 77.3% of patient visits, respectively, of which 28.7% were given intravenously. Antibiotics misuse was significantly more likely among newly employed physicians with lower levels of professional education. Adult patients and those who had public insurance had a higher risk of being prescribed unnecessary antibiotics.
Overuse of antibiotics for uncomplicated respiratory infection and use of cephalosporins, macrolides and injection antibiotics in primary care are the major problems of clinical practice in rural areas of Guizhou.
Abstract. Leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in Thailand. Herein, we report on two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with leishmaniasis who presented with overlapping manifestations between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA gene showed that the species was identical to a new species recently described in Thailand. The detection of DNA of this Leishmania species in saliva may have important implications for transmission and epidemiological studies.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.