In this paper, we investigate the causal link between foreign direct investment (FDI), domestic investment and economic growth in China for the period 1988-2003. Towards this purpose, a multivariate VAR system with error correction model (ECM) and the innovation accounting (variance decomposition and impulse response function analysis) techniques are used. The results show that while there is a bi-directional causality between domestic investment and economic growth, there is only a single-directional causality from FDI to domestic investment and to economic growth. Rather than crowding out domestic investment, FDI is found to be complementary with domestic investment. Thus, FDI has not only assisted in overcoming shortage of capital, it has also stimulated economic growth through complementing domestic investment in China.
This paper investigates the causal link between foreign direct investment and tourism in China by employing the Granger causality test under a VAR framework proposed by Zapata and Rambaldi (1997). Only a one-directional causality is found from foreign direct investment to tourism. This explains the rapid growth in the tourism market in China during the past decade.
In many developing countries, remittance payments from migrant workers are increasingly becoming a significant source of export income. This article investigates the causal link between remittances and economic growth in three countries, Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka, by employing the Granger causality test under a Vector Autoregression (VAR) framework (Granger, C.W.J. (1988) Some recent developments in the concept of causality. Journal of Econometrics, 39,. Using time series data over a 25-year period, we found that growth in remittances does lead to economic growth in Bangladesh. In India, there seems to be no causal relationship between growth in remittances and economic growth; but in Sri Lanka, a two-way directional causality is found; namely economic growth influences growth in remittances and vice-versa. The article also discusses a number of policy issues arising from the causality results.
India's liberalization and deregulation policies during the early 1990s have attracted a huge amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) into India in recent years. India has been ranked as the second most favored FDI destination in the world, just behind China. Policy makers in many countries believe that FDI will lead their country's overall development, including the tourism sector. this article investigates the causal link between FDI and tourist arrivals in India by employing the Granger causality test under a VAr framework. A two-way causality link is found between FDI and tourist arrivals in India. this explains the rapid growth in the tourism sector as well as FDI in India during the last decade. Our two-way causality results in relation to India are similar to the findings of a number of small island developing states (SIDS).
This project investigates the relationship between student performance, past mathematics experience, and perceptions of statistics education for two groups of university students studying statistics in different learning environments. One group received the traditional form of teaching with lectures, whereas the other group studied in a more flexible learning mode where lectures were replaced with a computer-managed learning tool and optional small-group workshops facilitated by written lecture notes. The results on student learning experience show that, for both groups, student enjoyment of the course is positively related to their learning attitudes and to their perceived value of statistics education, and is negatively related to anxiety with regard to their performance in the course. There is some evidence that the group studying in the technology-supported flexible learning environment experienced more assessment anxiety and consequently less enjoyment of the subject. There is also evidence that assessment anxiety has a negative effect on student performance that is exacerbated by a lack of prior mathematics experience. Hence, the flexible learning approach in statistics education, with minimal face-to-face teaching, may be especially inappropriate for these students.
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