We present several rigorous methods for sampling difficult-to-reach and empirically underrepresented populations via the Internet. The methodology's representativeness was tested by comparing the demographics of a small sample of 82 lesbian and bisexual females with a much larger Gallup Organization sample of the general population (n > 1,000) obtained via random digit dialing. Compared to the latter poll, the rigorous sampling designs developed for the Internet were found to be significantly more robust and equally representative of the U.S. general population. The Gallup Organization reached a sample more representative of the age distribution of the United States. The Internet sample reached a sample more representative of the population, with less education, lower incomes, and a broad spectrum of ethnic diversity. The samples were equally effective in representing the distribution of the population with rural and urban residence.
Living plants provide an opportunity to rethink the design and fabrication of devices ordinarily produced from plastic and circuit boards and ultimately disposed of as waste. The spongy mesophyll is a high -surface area composition of parenchyma cells that supports gas and liquid exchange through stomata pores within the surface of most leaves. Here, we investigate the mesophyll of living plants as biocompatible substrates for the photonic display of thin nanophosphorescent films for photonic applications. Size-sorted, silica-coated 650 ± 290 -nm strontium aluminate nanoparticles are infused into five diverse plant species with conformal display of 2-μm films on the mesophyll enabling photoemission of up to 4.8 × 10 13 photons/second. Chlorophyll measurements over 9 days and functional testing over 2 weeks at 2016 excitation/emission cycles confirm biocompatibility. This work establishes methods to transform living plants into photonic substrates for applications in plant-based reflectance devices, signaling, and the augmentation of plant-based lighting.
The growing burden of waste disposal coupled with natural resource scarcity has renewed interest in the remediation, valorization and/or repurposing of waste. Traditional approaches such as composting, anaerobic digestion, use in fertilizers or animal feed, or incineration for energy production extract very little value out of these waste streams. In contrast, waste valorization into fuels and other biochemicals via microbial fermentation is an area of growing interest. In this review, we discuss microbial valorization of nonconventional, aqueous waste streams such as food processing effluents, wastewater streams, and other industrial wastes. We categorize these waste streams as carbohydrate-rich food wastes, lipid-rich wastes, and other industrial wastes. Recent advances in microbial valorization of these nonconventional waste streams are highlighted, along with a discussion of the specific challenges and opportunities associated with impurities, nitrogen content, toxicity, and low productivity.
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