BackgroundLight exposure can cascade numerous effects on the human circadian process via the non-imaging forming system, whose spectral relevance is highest in the short-wavelength range. Here we investigated if commercially available compact fluorescent lamps with different colour temperatures can impact on alertness and cognitive performance.MethodsSixteen healthy young men were studied in a balanced cross-over design with light exposure of 3 different light settings (compact fluorescent lamps with light of 40 lux at 6500K and at 2500K and incandescent lamps of 40 lux at 3000K) during 2 h in the evening.ResultsExposure to light at 6500K induced greater melatonin suppression, together with enhanced subjective alertness, well-being and visual comfort. With respect to cognitive performance, light at 6500K led to significantly faster reaction times in tasks associated with sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance and GO/NOGO Task), but not in tasks associated with executive function (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task). This cognitive improvement was strongly related with attenuated salivary melatonin levels, particularly for the light condition at 6500K.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that the sensitivity of the human alerting and cognitive response to polychromatic light at levels as low as 40 lux, is blue-shifted relative to the three-cone visual photopic system. Thus, the selection of commercially available compact fluorescent lights with different colour temperatures significantly impacts on circadian physiology and cognitive performance at home and in the workplace.
Keywords non-image-forming system, non-rapid eye movement sleep, polychromatic blue light, sleep electroencephalographic power density, slow wave activity Correspondence
Seasonal variation in direct and indirect measures of energy status was examined using estimates of glycogen, lipid and protein levels in a single cohort of male three-spined sticklebacks from an annual population collected each month over one complete year. Condition factor, somatic condition factor and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were calculated as indirect indices of energy status and the accuracy of these indirect measures as predictors of energy status was investigated. Results indicate that both condition factors were significant predictors of energy reserves (lipid, protein, glycogen and total energy), but that the proportion of variance accounted for was small. Both condition factors perform better as predictors of energy content per unit body weight. The HSI was a significant, but a weak predictor of total glycogen levels over the whole year. On a seasonal basis the relationship between HSI and energy reserves was highly variable. These indices are therefore poor predictors of energy reserves in male three-spined sticklebacks. '(', 1995 The Fisheries Sociely of the British Isles
Prolonged wakefulness alters cortical excitability, which is essential for proper brain function and cognition. However, besides prior wakefulness, brain function and cognition are also affected by circadian rhythmicity. Whether the regulation of cognition involves a circadian impact on cortical excitability is unknown. Here, we assessed cortical excitability from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in 22 participants during 29 h of wakefulness under constant conditions. Data reveal robust circadian dynamics of cortical excitability that are strongest in those individuals with highest endocrine markers of circadian amplitude. In addition, the time course of cortical excitability correlates with changes in EEG synchronization and cognitive performance. These results demonstrate that the crucial factor for cortical excitability, and basic brain function in general, is the balance between circadian rhythmicity and sleep need, rather than sleep homoeostasis alone. These findings have implications for clinical applications such as non-invasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation.
A schematic design of an epidermal touch panel is shown in Fig. 4A. The epidermal touch panel was built on a 1-mm-thick VHB film (3M, Maplewood, MN) so as to insulate the panel from
Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (58 lux). Cognitive tasks were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness, and questionnaires were administered hourly to assess subjective sleepiness, mood, and wellbeing. Salivary melatonin and cortisol were collected throughout scheduled wakefulness in regular intervals, and the effects on melatonin were measured after only one light pulse. Following the first SR, analysis of the time course of cognitive performance during scheduled wakefulness indicated a decrease following DL, whereas it remained stable following BL and significantly improved after DsL. Cognitive performance levels during the second day after SR were not significantly affected by the different light conditions. However, after both SR nights, mood and well-being were significantly enhanced after exposure to morning DsL compared with DL and BL. Melatonin onset occurred earlier after morning BL exposure, than after morning DsL and DL, whereas salivary cortisol levels were higher at wake-up time after DsL compared with BL and DL. Our data indicate that exposure to an artificial morning dawn simulation light improves subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive performance, as compared with DL and BL, with minimal impact on circadian phase. Thus, DsL may provide an effective strategy for enhancing cognitive performance, wellbeing, and mood under mild sleep restriction.
Wet and dry weights of tissue were measured and concentrations of glycogen, lipid and protein were estimated for the liver, gonad and carcass of male sticklebacks from an annual population collected each month over one complete year. In young-of-the-year there is one period of rapid weight gain, in all three body regions (liver, carcass and gonads) but particularly of the carcass, in the autumn and a second in spring and early summer. This is accompanied by an increase in the water content of all three body regions. The gonadosomatic index also increases sharply in spring and early summer. Young sticklebacks accumulate lipid and glycogen slowly during the autumn and winter of their first year of life and more rapidly from late winter to early summer. Thus, the period of most rapid accumulation of these reserves coincides with the time when body weight and gonad maturation are also increasing sharply. Lipid and glycogen levels fall during the reproductive season in those males that breed? so that by July they are reduced to 43% and 37% (respectively) of their peak values in May. Levels of protein increase throughout the year as the fish grow, but in breeding males by July the concentration of protein in the carcass falls to 70% of pre-breeding levels. Breeding males therefore reach the end of the reproductive season with their total energy reserves severely reduced, and consequently they suffer a very high mortality. In contrast, adult males that fail to reproduce survive beyond the breeding season. They continue to gain weight and to accumulate lipid and glycogen from August to September, but these. energy reserves fall (to levels comparable to those of post-breeding fish) in December, when these fish probably die. These results demonstrate that in male sticklebacks, growth and gonad maturation can be sustained in parallel with the accumulation of energy reserves, which are subsequently extensively depleted as a result of reproductive activities.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers