Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1/2) occur often in diffuse gliomas, where they are associated with abnormal accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Monitoring 2-HG levels could provide prognostic information in this disease, but detection strategies that are noninvasive and sufficiently quantitative have yet to be developed. In this study, we address this need by presenting a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) acquisition scheme that uses an ultrahigh magnetic field (!7T) capable of noninvasively detecting 2-HG with quantitative measurements sufficient to differentiate mutant cytosolic IDH1 and mitochondrial IDH2 in human brain tumors. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of in vivo 1 H-MRS spectra discriminated between IDHmutant tumors and healthy tissue, and separated IDH1 from IDH2 mutations. High-quality spectra enabled the quantification of neurochemical profiles consisting of at least eight metabolites, including 2-HG, glutamate, lactate, and glutathione in both tumor and healthy tissue voxels. Notably, IDH2 mutation produced more 2-HG than IDH1 mutation, consistent with previous findings in cell culture. By offering enhanced sensitivity and specificity, this scheme can quantitatively detect 2-HG and associated metabolites that may accumulate during tumor progression, with implications to better monitor patient responses to therapy. Cancer Res; 76(1); 43-49. Ó2015 AACR.
Craniopharyngiomas are benign but locally invasive tumours of the sellar region that occur as two subtypes. The adamantinomatous type (aCP) occurs mainly during childhood while the papillary type (pCP) is found almost exclusively in adults. It is thought that aCPs arise from ectopic embryonic remnants of Rathke's pouch and these tumours share features with odontogenic tumours suggesting a common origin. The pathogenesis of pCPs is less understood but these tumours may arise from metaplastic transformation of anterior pituitary epithelial cells. Mutations in CTNNB1 that encodes β-catenin are found in around 70 % of aCPs. These mutations stabilise β-catenin, which evades destruction and accumulates in the nucleus and cytosol leading to constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Expression of mutant β-catenin early in mouse pituitary development promotes the formation of tumours similar to aCPs. However, accumulation of β-catenin occurs only in small clusters of tumour cells even though the mutation is ubiquitous. These cell clusters are slow-growing and share some characteristics with pituitary stem cells. They are often present at the invading edge and express growth factors that may participate in paracrine signaling to surrounding cells. β-Catenin nuclear translocation may also occur in the absence of CTNNB1 mutations, suggesting that other genetic or epigenetic events can activate Wnt signaling in aCP. These mechanisms, as well as those underlying the molecular pathogenesis of pCPs remain to be identified.
Non-syndromic pituitary gigantism can result from AIP mutations or the recently identified Xq26.3 microduplication causing X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG). Within Xq26.3, GPR101 is believed to be the causative gene, and the c.924G > C (p.E308D) variant in this orphan G protein-coupled receptor has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of acromegaly.We studied 153 patients (58 females and 95 males) with pituitary gigantism. AIP mutation-negative cases were screened for GPR101 duplication through copy number variation droplet digital PCR and high-density aCGH. The genetic, clinical and histopathological features of XLAG patients were studied in detail. 395 peripheral blood and 193 pituitary tumor DNA samples from acromegaly patients were tested for GPR101 variants.We identified 12 patients (10 females and 2 males; 7.8 %) with XLAG. In one subject, the duplicated region only contained GPR101, but not the other three genes in found to be duplicated in the previously reported patients, defining a new smallest region of overlap of duplications. While females presented with germline mutations, the two male patients harbored the mutation in a mosaic state. Nine patients had pituitary adenomas, while three had hyperplasia. The comparison of the features of XLAG, AIP-positive and GPR101&AIP-negative patients revealed significant differences in sex distribution, age at onset, height, prolactin co-secretion and histological features. The pathological features of XLAG-related adenomas were remarkably similar. These tumors had a sinusoidal and lobular architecture. Sparsely and densely granulated somatotrophs were admixed with lactotrophs; follicle-like structures and calcifications were commonly observed. Patients with sporadic of familial acromegaly did not have an increased prevalence of the c.924G > C (p.E308D) GPR101 variant compared to public databases.In conclusion, XLAG can result from germline or somatic duplication of GPR101. Duplication of GPR101 alone is sufficient for the development of XLAG, implicating it as the causative gene within the Xq26.3 region. The pathological features of XLAG-associated pituitary adenomas are typical and, together with the clinical phenotype, should prompt genetic testing.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40478-016-0328-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are reactive dicarbonyl metabolites formed and metabolized in physiological systems. Increased exposure to these dicarbonyls is linked to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity and enhanced dicarbonyl metabolism by overexpression of glyoxalase 1 is linked to tumour multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. We report herein that glycation of DNA by glyoxal and methylglyoxal produces a quantitatively important class of nucleotide adduct in physiological systems—imidazopurinones. The adduct derived from methylglyoxal-3-(2′-deoxyribosyl)-6,7-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-6/7-methylimidazo-[2,3-b]purine-9(8)one isomers—was the major quantitative adduct detected in mononuclear leukocytes in vivo and tumour cell lines in vitro. It was linked to frequency of DNA strand breaks and increased markedly during apoptosis induced by a cell permeable glyoxalase 1 inhibitor. Unexpectedly, the DNA content of methylglyoxal-derived imidazopurinone and oxidative marker 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine were increased moderately in glyoxalase 1-linked multidrug resistant tumour cell lines. Together these findings suggest that imidazopurinones are a major type of endogenous DNA damage and glyoxalase 1 overexpression in tumour cells strives to counter increased imidazopurinone formation in tumour cells likely linked to their high glycolytic activity.
Objective: Somatotroph adenomas causing acromegaly are histologically classified into densely granulated (DG) and sparsely granulated (SG) subtypes with different morphology, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. Granulation pattern has been reported to co-segregate with a recurrent mutation at codon 49 in growth hormone receptor (GHR) and GSP oncogene. This study examines response to the octreotide suppression test (OST) in relation to granulation pattern and mutation in GHR and GSP. Design: This is a retrospective, single-centre study of 52 patients with pathologically confirmed somatotroph adenoma who were naïve to medical therapy presenting between January 2001 and October 2010. Methods: Clinical, radiological and hormonal data at diagnosis were recorded. GHR and GSP were genotyped, granulation pattern determined and response to the OST measured. Results: SG adenomas were larger (PZ0.038), occurred in younger patients (PZ0.029), were more common in females (PZ0.026) and were more invasive (P!0.0001 and PZ0.001), with diminished responses to the OST (PZ0.007) compared with DG adenomas. GSP mutation was unrelated to granulation pattern but associated with smaller tumours (PZ0.027), producing more GH (PZ0.048) that responded better to the OST (PZ0.022). Codon 49 of GHR was not mutated. Conclusions: Adenoma histological phenotype, not genotype, corresponds to clinical and biochemical characteristics and response to the OST. SG adenomas constitute a clinically more unfavourable subtype but are not associated with GHR mutations in our series. Ascertainment of the adenoma subtype may become an important consideration in the management of acromegaly.
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