Begomoviruses are ssDNA plant viruses that cause serious epidemics in economically important crops worldwide. Non-cultivated plants also harbour many begomoviruses, and it is believed that these hosts may act as reservoirs and as mixing vessels where recombination may occur. Begomoviruses are notoriously recombination-prone, and also display nucleotide substitution rates equivalent to those of RNA viruses. In Brazil, several indigenous begomoviruses have been described infecting tomatoes following the introduction of a novel biotype of the whitefly vector in the mid-1990s. More recently, a number of viruses from non-cultivated hosts have also been described. Previous work has suggested that viruses infecting non-cultivated hosts have a higher degree of genetic variability compared with crop-infecting viruses. We intensively sampled cultivated and non-cultivated plants in similarly sized geographical areas known to harbour either the weed-infecting Macroptilium yellow spot virus (MaYSV) or the crop-infecting Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), and compared the molecular evolution and population genetics of these two distantly related begomoviruses. The results reinforce the assertion that infection of non-cultivated plant species leads to higher levels of standing genetic variability, and indicate that recombination, not adaptive selection, explains the higher begomovirus variability in non-cultivated hosts.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor in redox reactions and a substrate for NAD-consuming enzymes, such as PARPs and sirtuins. As cancer cells have increased NAD requirements, the main NAD salvage enzymes in humans, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), are involved in the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Knowledge of the expression patterns of both genes in tissues and tumors is critical for the use of nicotinic acid (NA) as cytoprotective in therapies using NAMPT inhibitors. Herein, we provide a comprehensive study of NAPRT and NAMPT expression across human tissues and tumor cell lines. We show that both genes are widely expressed under normal conditions and describe the occurrence of novel NAPRT transcripts. Also, we explore some of the NAPRT gene expression mechanisms. Our findings underline that the efficiency of NA in treatments with NAMPT inhibitors is dependent on the knowledge of the expression profiles and regulation of both NAMPT and NAPRT.
A survey of begomoviruses infecting leguminous weeds (family Fabaceae) was carried out in four states of northeastern Brazil. A total of 26 full-length begomovirus components (19 DNA-A and seven DNA-B, with three pairs of cognate A and B components) were amplified using rolling-circle amplification, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of six species, four of them novel. In phylogenetic analysis five of the viruses clustered with other Brazilian begomoviruses, but one of them (Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus, EuYMV) clustered with viruses from other countries in Central and South America. Evidence of recombination was found among isolates of Macroptilium yellow spot virus (MaYSV). The MaYSV population had a high degree of genetic variability. Macroptilium lathyroides was revealed as a common host for several of these viruses, and could act as a mixing vessel from which recombinant viruses could emerge. The results indicate that leguminous weeds are reservoirs of several begomoviruses in Brazil, and could play a significant role in begomovirus epidemics, both as inoculum sources and as sources of emerging novel viruses.
although most of the aspects were suitable, some deficiencies were observed; criteria definition and legislation updates are necessary to improve health services and to accomplish the proposal of network service.
Resumo A satisfação dos usuários é um importante critério para avaliar a qualidade dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS). O objetivo foi avaliar a satisfação de usuários dos principais CAPS de uma região de Minas Gerais e seus fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 11 CAPS, os usuários foram entrevistados para aplicação da Escala de Avaliação da Satisfação dos Usuários com os Serviços de Saúde Mental e um formulário semi-estruturado com variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas. Os usuários estavam satisfeitos com os CAPS, sobretudo quanto à competência dos profissionais, acolhida e ajuda recebida no serviço. Condições físicas e conforto do serviço obtiveram os menores escores na escala de avaliação de satisfação. Verificou-se que quase metade dos usuários não conhecia aspectos básicos de sua terapia medicamentosa, como o nome dos medicamentos em uso, e um terço relatou que já fez uso inadequado destes. Os usuários dos CAPS álcool e drogas ou de serviços de médio porte estavam mais satisfeitos que os dos CAPS saúde mental ou serviços com funcionamento 24h. Os usuários estão satisfeitos com o modelo de atenção praticado nos CAPS, embora detectada a necessidade de melhorias na estrutura física, mecanismos de participação e empoderamento dos usuários.
Diseases caused by begomoviruses are a serious constraint to crop production in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including Brazil. Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, single-stranded DNA viruses that are often associated with weed plants, which may act as natural reservoirs of viruses that cause epidemics in crop plants. Cleome affinis (family Capparaceae) is an annual weed that is frequently associated with leguminous crops in Brazil. Samples of C. affinis were collected in four states in the northeast of Brazil. Analysis of 14 full-length DNA-A components revealed that only one begomovirus was present, with 91-96% identity to cleome leaf crumple virus (ClLCrV). In a phylogenetic tree, ClLCrV forms a basal group relative to all other Brazilian begomoviruses. Evidence of multiple recombination events was detected among the ClLCrV isolates, which also display a high degree of genetic variability. Despite ClLCrV being the only begomovirus found, its phylogenetic placement, high genetic variability and recombinant nature suggest that C. affinis may act as a source of novel viruses for crop plants. Alternatively, ClLCrV could be a genetically isolated begomovirus. Further studies on the biological properties of ClLCrV should help to clarify the role of C. affinis in the epidemiological scenario of Brazilian begomoviruses.
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (NAPRT1) are the main human NAD salvage enzymes. NAD regulates energy metabolism and cell signaling, and the enzymes that control NAD availability are linked to pathologies such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Here, we have screened normal and tumor samples from different tissues and populations of origin for mutations in human NAMPT and NAPRT1, and evaluated their potential pathogenicity. We have identified several novel polymorphisms and showed that NAPRT1 has a greater genetic diversity than NAMPT, where any alteration can have a greater functional impact. Some variants presented different frequencies between normal and tumor samples that were most likely related to their population of origin. The novel mutations described that affect protein structure or expression levels can be functionally relevant and should be considered in a disease context. Particularly, mutations that decrease NAPRT1 expression can predict the usefulness of Nicotinic Acid in tumor treatments with NAMPT inhibitors.
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