Natural evolution relies on the improvement of biological entities by rounds of diversification and selection. In the laboratory, directed evolution has emerged as a powerful tool for the development of new and improved biomolecules, but it is limited by the enormous workload and cost of screening sufficiently large combinatorial libraries. Here we describe the production of gel-shell beads (GSBs) with the help of a microfluidic device. These hydrogel beads are surrounded with a polyelectrolyte shell that encloses an enzyme, its encoding DNA and the fluorescent reaction product. Active clones in these manmade compartments can be identified readily by fluorescence-activated sorting at rates >107 GSBs per hour. We use this system to perform the directed evolution of a phosphotriesterase (a bioremediation catalyst) caged in GSBs and isolate a 20-fold faster mutant in less than one hour. We thus establish a practically undemanding method for ultrahigh-throughput screening that results in functional hybrid composites endowed with evolvable protein components. Evolution of Catalysts Caged in Biomimetic Gel-Shell Beads AbstractNatural evolution relies on improvement of biological entities by rounds of
Objective: To evaluate and compare the remineralization potential of a dentifrice containing bioactive glass and a topical cream containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in remineralizing artificial carious lesion on enamel. Material and Methods: Forty-five freshly extracted human permanent premolar teeth were selected. Samples were divided into three groups: GI-regular tooth paste without specific remineralizing agent; GII-tooth paste containing calcium sodium-phosphosilicate (novamin) and GIII-topical cream containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. All the sound enamel samples were viewed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to assess the topographical pictures of enamel surface and energy dispersing x-ray analysis (EDAX) was done to estimate quantitatively the amounts of mineral (calcium and phosphorous). The mineral content of calcium and phosphorus after demineralization in each group was noted. The samples were then subjected to SEM and EDAX. Results: GI does not show any increase in the calcium and phosphorus after applying toothpaste without any remineralizing agent but GII and GIII showed a net increase in calcium and phosphorous values after applying concern-remineralizing agents. Inter group comparison showed GIII yield higher net calcium and phosphorous values than GII. Conclusion: Two remineralizing agents showed remineralization potential on enamel surfaces. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate showed better remineralizing potential than calcium sodium phosphosilicate. Hence CPP-ACP can be considered as the material of choice in remineralizing early enamel carious lesions.
Objectives: Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. Study Design: A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. Results: 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). Conclusion: The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.
BackgroundTo assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among adolescents using the dental health component (DHC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN).MethodsA descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 (mean age 16.25 ± 1.09) adolescents randomly selected from the northern border region of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The northern border region is sub-divided into three governorates: Ar’ar (186), Rafha (142) and Turayf (172). The data were recorded in questionnaires to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and estimate of DHC of the IOTN index.ResultsThe most common malocclusions in order of prevalence were Angle’s Class I (52.8%), Angle’s Class II (31.8%), Angle’s Class III (15.4%), crowding (47.2%), excessive overjet (> 2 mm) (22.2%), reduced overjet (< 1 mm) (11.4%), excessive overbite (> 2 mm) (23.4%), reduced overbite (< 1 mm) (12.2%), anterior crossbite (4.8%), posterior crossbite (9.4%) and open bite (4.6%). The most common facial profiles determined in the sagittal plane, were the straight facial profile (49.2%), convex (42.6%) and concave (8.2%). The prevalence of Grade 1 and 2 DHC was 49.4%, Grade 3 was 29.6%, Grade 4 and 5 was 21%. The grades of DHC of IOTN index were as follows: 48.73% of males and 50.22% of females showed grades 1 and 2. Grade 3 was observed in 30.32% of males and 28.69% of females. Grades 4 and 5 were recorded in 20.93% of males and 21.07% of females.ConclusionsThe prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among the north border region of KSA is comparable with that of other regional studies.
BackgroundOral health is important to individuals of all age groups. Previous epidemiologic studies of the oral health status of the general population in India provided very little information about oral mucosal lesions in the elderly. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the oral lesions in a geriatric Indian population.Methods5,100 patients were clinically evaluated, with age ranging from 60 to 98 years. There were 3,100 males and 2,000 females, with a mean age of 69 ± 6.3 yrs. The statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software, where p < .05 was considered to be significant.Results64% of the patients presented with one or more oral lesions, associated to tobacco, betel nut consumption, and lesions secondary to trauma and prosthesis. Males were more affected than females and this difference was clinically not significant (p > .05). The lesions were more frequently observed between 65 to 70 yrs. The most common alterations observed were smoker’s palate (43%), denture stomatitis (34%), oral submucous fibrosis (30%), frictional keratosis (23%), leukoplakia (22%), and pyogenic granuloma (22%). Hard palate was the most commonly affected site (23.1%).ConclusionsThe findings of the present study provide important information when clinically evaluating oral cavity in elderly. Close follow-up and systematic evaluation is required in the elderly population to plan future treatment needs.
Objective: Tongue lesions are a health concern for the dental practitioners and the patients as they constitute a significant proportion of oral mucosal lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of various tongue lesions in the Indian population. Material and methods: 4926 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were examined for the presence of various tongue lesions during the period from October, 2010 to September, 2012. The age of the patients ranged from 12-80 years with a mean age of 36.51 years. Results: The prevalence of tongue lesions was 12.07%. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated tongue affecting 28.0% of the subjects, followed by geographic tongue (16.4%), fissured tongue (14.9%) and depapillated tongue (11.5%). Males were more frequently affected than females. The most common systemic condition observed in the patients with tongue lesions was anaemia (189), followed by hypertension (47) and diabetes mellitus (38). Conclusion: The high prevalence necessitates adequate awareness of the various tongue lesions in the general population. The dental clinicians should also be knowledgeable about the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions. Key words:Tongue lesions, prevalence, Indian population, coated tongue.
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