BackgroundA high proportion of pigs imported to Serbia from a Lithuanian breeding herd reacted positively against avian and/or bovine tuberculin. The pigs were euthanized and lesions characteristic for mycobacterial infection were detected. An investigation of potential mycobacteriosis in the pigs imported to Serbia and the possible source of infection in the Lithuanian herd were therefore initialised.ResultsFormalin fixed, paraffin embedded lymph nodes from tuberculin positive animals were examined by real-time PCR for IS1245 and IS6110. IS1245 was detected in 55% and IS6110 in 11% of the samples. Seven of the ten IS6110 positive samples were positive for IS1245. Eleven lymph nodes from 10 pigs and 15 environmental samples were collected from the Lithuanian breeding herd and cultured for mycobacteria. M. avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in all lymph nodes and from eight samples of peat and sawdust. Isolates with identical and related IS1245- and IS1311 RFLP profiles were detected from swine and peat.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated cross reactions between avian and bovine tuberculin in pigs. Real-time PCR indicated infection with M. avium in the Serbian pigs. However, as a small proportion of the lymph nodes were positive for IS6110, infection with bacteria in the M. tuberculosis complex could not be ruled out. Analyses confirmed the presence of M. avium subsp. hominissuis in porcine and environmental samples from the Lithuanian breeding herd. The results indicate peat as a source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection in these pigs, and that the pigs imported to Serbia were infected with M. avium subsp. hominissuis.
The aim of this study was to determine the association of lung lesions with carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs and to describe the main morphological features associated with lung lesions. Macroscopic lesions on the lungs were detected in 67.09% of a total of 79 pigs examined. Histopathological examination revealed that acute and chronic interstitial pneumonia represented the commonest changes, detected in 26.67% and 33.33% of the cases, respectively. Bronchopneumonia was found in 33.33% of the cases. By immunohistochemical examination, 26.67% of the lungs showed the presence of severe peribronchiolar and perialveolar infiltration composed predominantly of CD3+ T lymphocytes, which finding may be indicative of viral pneumonia. Regarding the production traits, it was confirmed that pigs with severe lung lesions had the lowest liveweight, hot carcass weight and meatiness, the highest pH value 45 min after slaughtering (pH) and the highest incidence of dark, firm, dry (DFD) and pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat. The presence of lung lesions significantly downgraded carcass value and caused a significant deterioration in pork quality.
Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals.
BackgroundThis paper describes liver cirrhosis in 35 fallow deer infected with the giant liver fluke, as well as the distribution, origin, and role of myofibroblasts in its development.ResultsIn liver of infected deer, stripes of connective tissue are wound around groups of degenerated and regenerated liver lobuli. In the connective tissue, lymphocytes and macrophages which often contain parasite hematin are also present. The walls of the bile ducts are thickened, the epithelium multiplied with mucous metaplasia, and desquamated cells, parasite eggs and brown pigment are present in their lumen.In the livers with cirrhosis, immunopositivity to α-SMA and desmin was observed in cells in portal and septal spaces, at the edge between fibrotic septa and the surrounding parenchyma and in perisinusoidal spaces. These cells vary in size, they are round, oval, spindle-shaped or irregular in shape, similar to vascular smooth muscle cells. The derangement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions detected in chronic cholangiopathies is most probably the pro-fibrogenic mechanism in liver cirrhosis of fallow deer (Dama dama) infected with the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna).ConclusionMyofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), play an important role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix components in the development of parasitic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the liver of fallow deer.
The lymphatic organs of 50 pigs from a total of eight farms located at different sites in the epizootiological region of North Bačka County were studied to obtain data on the prevalence of circoviral infections in Serbia. All of the pigs examined had clinical signs suggestive of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). All pigs underwent necropsy and tissue samples were taken for histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and PCR analysis. The presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was established by PCR analysis in the organs of the pigs tested. The most frequent histopathological lesions of lymphoid tissue linked with the presence of positive immunostaining for PCV2 Cap antigen confirmed the existence of PMWS in all farms tested in North Bačka County. Using PCR, histopathological and IHC techniques, the presence of PMWS was proved in the Republic of Serbia. During necropsy, generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes was evident. The most common histopathological finding was lymphocyte depletion in the follicular and perifollicular areas of lymph nodes. Infiltration by macrophages was also recorded. By IHC analysis, the cytoplasm of macrophages was shown to contain a large amount of the ORF2-coded Cap antigen of PCV2. Lymphocyte depletion and large numbers of macrophages were recorded in the tonsils, spleen, intestinal lymphatic tissue, Peyer's patches and ileocaecal valve. The presence of typical granulomatous lesions with multinuclear giant cells (MGCs) was also recorded in the lymphatic tissue. Cap antigen was shown to be present in macrophages and less often in lymphocytes.
Out of the total number of canine tumors examined at the Department of pathology based on biopsy and section materials over the last five years skin tumors and mammary gland tumors were proved to be the two largest groups diagnosed in 33.4% and 36% of cases, respectively. Cutaneous tumors were diagnosed in 211 cases, i.e., in 123 (58.3%) male dogs and 88 (41.7%) bitches, of different breeds, on average 7 years old. Among the total number of 211 skin tumors, 32 types of cutaneous neoplasms were diagnosed, with epithelial and melanocytic tumors being the most predominant, followed by hematopoietic tumors and mesenchymal tumors of the skin and soft tissues. In our bioptic and section materials, epithelial and melanocytic skin tumors were the most frequent -123 cases (58.75%) with four subgroups within the group tumors with adnexal differentiation - 66 cases (53.23% of all epithelial and melanocytic skin tumors), epidermal tumors - 25 cases (20.16% of all epithelial and melanocytic skin tumors), tumors without squamous or adnexal differentiation -16 cases (12.90% of all epithelial and melanocytic skin tumors) and finally melanocytic tumors -14 cases (11.29% of all epithelial and melanocytic skin tumors). The age of dogs with epithelial and melanocytic cutaneous tumors ranged between 5 months to 15 years. The fact that the number of skin tumors diagnosed in 1999 was doubled in 2002 is of particular importance, which may be, the result of increasingly high interest of clinicians for biopsy-based diagnosis
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a significant role in hepatic fibrogenesis. In the following study we described the distribution of cells that express alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin in the cat liver with various degrees of fibrosis, as well as the significance of hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts in the genesis of fibrosis in cats with polycistic kidney disease. Liver samples from 15 necropsied Persian cats were examined microscopically, using H&E and Masson-trichrom methods and immunohistology for α-SMA and desmin. Liver fibrosis was confirmed in cats with terminal stage of chronic cholangiohepatitis and it was characterized by connective tissue septa which divide the liver parenchyma into irregular lobuli. Inflammation in the cat liver is connected with the activation of periductal myofibroblasts. The intensity of immunopositivity of perisinusoidal HSCs to α-SMA and desmin varied depending on the degree of fibrosis and was the strongest in livers of cats with cirrhosis
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic swine and wild boars. The aim of the study was to examine samples of lymphoid tissues and brain for the presence of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) antigen in piglets that originate from vaccinated and unvaccinated sows, in order to compare the intensity of pathological lesions in conditions of different immunological status. A total of 20 crossbreed piglets of both sexes, aged 45 days were divided in three groups (G1, G2 and G3). Piglets of G1 originated from sows vaccinated with a live vaccine containing attenuated C strain CSFV. Piglets of G2 originated from unvaccinated sows. Two piglets of G3 originated from vaccinated and two piglets from unvaccinated sows and they served as the control group. All the piglets from G1 and G2 were intramuscularly inoculated with 2×10 5 TCDI/ 50 of CSFV, Baker strain and they died by the 22 nd day post inoculation. Immunohistochemistry was applied for immunolabeling E2 (gp55) glycoprotein of CSFV in the tonsils, mandibular lymph nodes, ileocecal valve and brain of all tested piglets. Differences were observed in the severity of lesions in the lymphoid tissue and the brain between G1 and G2 piglets. The present level of colostral antibodies was not able to protect piglets in G1 from the fatal outcome of the disease. Among others, this fi nding may also have an impact on vaccination policy in the future. Having in mind that vaccination of all domestic pigs with attenuated C-strain vaccine is still a mandatory control measure for CSF in Serbia, soon a non-vaccination policy should be harmonized with EU directives.
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