In most brain computer interface (BCI) systems, some target users have significant difficulty in using BCI systems. Such target users are called ‘BCI-illiterate’. This phenomenon has been poorly investigated, and a clear understanding of the BCI-illiteracy mechanism or a solution to this problem has not been reported to date. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the neurophysiological differences between two groups (literate, illiterate) with a total of 52 subjects. We investigated recordings under non-task related state (NTS) which is collected during subject is relaxed with eyes open. We found that high theta and low alpha waves were noticeable in the BCI-illiterate relative to the BCI-literate people. Furthermore, these high theta and low alpha wave patterns were preserved across different mental states, such as NTS, resting before motor imagery (MI), and MI states, even though the spatial distribution of both BCI-illiterate and BCI-literate groups did not differ. From these findings, an effective strategy for pre-screening subjects for BCI illiteracy has been determined, and a performance factor that reflects potential user performance has been proposed using a simple combination of band powers. Our proposed performance factor gave an r = 0.59 (r2 = 0.34) in a correlation analysis with BCI performance and yielded as much as r = 0.70 (r2 = 0.50) when seven outliers were rejected during the evaluation of whole data (N = 61), including BCI competition datasets (N = 9). These findings may be directly applicable to online BCI systems.
Background:Most investigators of brain–computer interface (BCI) research believe that BCI can be achieved through induced neuronal activity from the cortex, but not by evoked neuronal activity. Motor imagery (MI)–based BCI is one of the standard concepts of BCI, in that the user can generate induced activity by imagining motor movements. However, variations in performance over sessions and subjects are too severe to overcome easily; therefore, a basic understanding and investigation of BCI performance variation is necessary to find critical evidence of performance variation. Here we present not only EEG datasets for MI BCI from 52 subjects, but also the results of a psychological and physiological questionnaire, EMG datasets, the locations of 3D EEG electrodes, and EEGs for non-task-related states.Findings:We validated our EEG datasets by using the percentage of bad trials, event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, and classification analysis. After conventional rejection of bad trials, we showed contralateral ERD and ipsilateral ERS in the somatosensory area, which are well-known patterns of MI. Finally, we showed that 73.08% of datasets (38 subjects) included reasonably discriminative information.Conclusions:Our EEG datasets included the information necessary to determine statistical significance; they consisted of well-discriminated datasets (38 subjects) and less-discriminative datasets. These may provide researchers with opportunities to investigate human factors related to MI BCI performance variation, and may also achieve subject-to-subject transfer by using metadata, including a questionnaire, EEG coordinates, and EEGs for non-task-related states.
Investigations of the neuro-physiological correlates of mental loads, or states, have attracted significant attention recently, as it is particularly important to evaluate mental fatigue in drivers operating a motor vehicle. In this research, we collected multimodal EEG/ECG/EOG and fNIRS data simultaneously to develop algorithms to explore neuro-physiological correlates of drivers' mental states. Each subject performed simulated driving under two different conditions (well-rested and sleep-deprived) on different days. During the experiment, we used 68 electrodes for EEG/ECG/EOG and 8 channels for fNIRS recordings. We extracted the prominent features of each modality to distinguish between the well-rested and sleep-deprived conditions, and all multimodal features, except EOG, were combined to quantify mental fatigue during driving. Finally, a novel driving condition level (DCL) was proposed that distinguished clearly between the features of well-rested and sleep-deprived conditions. This proposed DCL measure may be applicable to real-time monitoring of the mental states of vehicle drivers. Further, the combination of methods based on each classifier yielded substantial improvements in the classification accuracy between these two conditions.
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) modulates endogenous neural oscillations in healthy human participants by the application of a low-amplitude electrical current with a periodic stimulation waveform. Yet, it is unclear if tACS can modulate and restore neural oscillations that are reduced in patients with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Here, we asked if tACS modulates network oscillations in schizophrenia. We performed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial to contrast tACS with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and sham stimulation in 22 schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations. We used highdensity electroencephalography to investigate if a five-day, twice-daily 10HztACS protocol
The large number of automobile accidents due to driver drowsiness is a critical concern of many countries. To solve this problem, numerous methods of countermeasure have been proposed. However, the results were unsatisfactory due to inadequate accuracy of drowsiness detection. In this study, we introduce a new approach, a combination of EEG and NIRS, to detect driver drowsiness. EEG, EOG, ECG and NIRS signals have been measured during a simulated driving task, in which subjects underwent both awake and drowsy states. The blinking rate, eye closure, heart rate, alpha and beta band power were used to identify subject’s condition. Statistical tests were performed on EEG and NIRS signals to find the most informative parameters. Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis method was employed to classify awake and drowsy states. Time series analysis was used to predict drowsiness. The oxy-hemoglobin concentration change and the beta band power in the frontal lobe were found to differ the most between the two states. In addition, these two parameters correspond well to an awake to drowsy state transition. A sharp increase of the oxy-hemoglobin concentration change, together with a dramatic decrease of the beta band power, happened several seconds before the first eye closure.
Chronic pain is associated with maladaptive reorganization of the central nervous system. Recent studies have suggested that disorganization of large-scale electrical brain activity patterns such as neuronal network oscillations in the thalamo-cortical system plays a key role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Yet, little is known about if and how such network pathologies can be targeted with non-invasive brain stimulation as a non-pharmacological treatment option. We hypothesized that alpha oscillations, a prominent thalamo-cortical activity pattern in the human brain, are impaired in chronic pain and can be modulated with transcranial alternating current
While brain computer interface (BCI) can be employed with patients and healthy subjects, there are problems that must be resolved before BCI can be useful to the public. In the most popular motor imagery (MI) BCI system, a significant number of target users (called “BCI-Illiterates”) cannot modulate their neuronal signals sufficiently to use the BCI system. This causes performance variability among subjects and even among sessions within a subject. The mechanism of such BCI-Illiteracy and possible solutions still remain to be determined. Gamma oscillation is known to be involved in various fundamental brain functions, and may play a role in MI. In this study, we investigated the association of gamma activity with MI performance among subjects. Ten simultaneous MEG/EEG experiments were conducted; MI performance for each was estimated by EEG data, and the gamma activity associated with BCI performance was investigated with MEG data. Our results showed that gamma activity had a high positive correlation with MI performance in the prefrontal area. This trend was also found across sessions within one subject. In conclusion, gamma rhythms generated in the prefrontal area appear to play a critical role in BCI performance.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.