Mediastinal drainage using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with or without cervical drainage can be a feasible and effective surgical option. This less invasive technique seems to have an outcome similar to more aggressive open surgical approaches for patients with mediastinitis previously reported in the literature, although it has not been directly compared.
Small (<2 cm) single-incision thoracoscopic surgery using a wound protector and a bidirectional anchoring suture was safe and feasible and yielded acceptable outcomes for treating primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
Castleman's disease is a rare disorder characterized by benign tumors that may develop in the lymph node tissue throughout the body. Castleman's disease associated with myasthenia gravis is an especially rare disease. Only less than 10 cases have been reported in the world literature. The cause of Castleman's disease is associated with immune mediated reaction, and myasthenia gravis also develops due to an antibody-mediated process. The cause of myasthenia gravis is the immune activity of Castleman's disease, which may be the promoter of the antibody-mediated process. We report here a case of Castleman's disease, which was incidentally found in a patient diagnosed with myasthenia gravis.
PurposeThe present study was aimed to assess the feasibility of using decellularized aortic allograft in a rat small animal surgical model for conducting small diameter vascular tissue engineering research.Materials and MethodsDecellularized aortic allografts were infra-renally implanted in 12 Sprague-Dawley (SD) adult rats. The conduits were harvested at 2 (n = 6) and 8 weeks (n = 6), and assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), van Gieson, Masson Trichrome staining, and immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor, CD 31+, and actin.ResultsConsistent, predictable, and reproducible results were produced by means of a standardized surgical procedure. All animals survived without major complications. Inflammatory immune reaction was minimal, and there was no evidence of aneurysmal degeneration or rupture of the decellularized vascular implants. However, the aortic wall appeared thinner and the elastic fibers in the medial layer showed decreased undulation compared to the normal aorta. There was also minimal cellular repopulation of the vascular media. The remodeling appeared progressive from 2 to 8 weeks with increased intimal thickening and accumulation of both collagen and cells staining for actin. Although the endothelial like cells appeared largely confluent at 8 weeks, they were not as concentrated in appearance as in the normal aorta.ConclusionThe results showed the present rat animal model using decellularized vascular allograft implants to be a potentially durable and effective experimental platform for conducting further research on small diameter vascular tissue engineering.
OBJECTIVE To assess by use of various diagnostic imaging modalities acute changes in livers of healthy dogs after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and determine the capability of each imaging modality to monitor ablation lesion changes. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES 12 ablation lesions were created in the liver of the dogs (2 lesions/dog). Ablation lesions were evaluated by use of conventional ultrasonography, strain elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography immediately after (time 0), 30 to 60 minutes after, and 3 days after RFA, and by use of CT 30 minutes and 3 days after RFA. Three dogs were euthanized shortly after RFA, and the other 3 dogs were euthanized on day 3. Lesion size measured by each imaging modality was compared with necropsy findings. RESULTS Immediately after RFA, clear margins were more visible with elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography than with conventional ultrasonography, which had acoustic shadowing. On triphasic contrast CT, the ablation zone, which indicated necrosis and hemorrhage, was not enhanced and could be measured. Marked enhancement of the periablation rim was observed during the venous phase and was identified as granulation tissue. Size of the ablation area measured on enhanced CT images was strongly correlated with actual lesion size. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs of this study, CT was the most reliable method for lesion size determination. Although ultrasonographic imaging measurements underestimated lesion size, all modalities could be used to provide additional real-time guidance for RFA procedures of the liver as well as for other RFA procedures.
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