Malaria is a significant public health problem in more than 100 countries and causes an estimated 200 million new infections every year. Despite the significant effort to eradicate this dangerous disease, lack of complete knowledge of its physiopathology compromises the success in this enterprise. In this paper we review oxidative stress mechanisms involved in the disease and discuss the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation as an adjuvant antimalarial strategy.
The risk of chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease is growing as a result of the continuous increasing average life span of the world population, a syndrome characterized by the presence of intraneural neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques composed mainly by beta-amyloid protein, changes that may cause a number of progressive disorders in the elderly, causing, in its most advanced stage, difficulty in performing normal daily activities, among other manifestations. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome. Nevertheless, despite intensive effort to access the physiopathological pathways of the disease, it remains poorly understood. In that context, some hypotheses have arisen, including the recent oxidative stress hypothesis, theory supported by the involvement of oxidative stress in aging, and the vulnerability of neurons to oxidative attack. In the present revision, oxidative changes and redox mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease will be further stressed, as well as the grounds for antioxidant supplementation as adjuvant therapy for the disease will be addressed.
Essential oils (EOs) were extracted from Eugenia patrisii, E. punicifolia, and Myrcia tomentosa, specimens A and B, using hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile constituents present, and the antioxidant capacity of EOs was determined using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. For E. patrisii, germacrene D (20.03%), bicyclogermacrene (11.82%), and (E)-caryophyllene (11.04%) were identified as the major constituents of the EOs extracted from specimen A, whereas specimen B primarily comprised γ-elemene (25.89%), germacrene B (8.11%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.76%). The EOs of E. punicifolia specimen A contained β-Elemene (25.12%), (E)-caryophyllene (13.11%), and bicyclogermacrene (9.88%), while specimen B was composed of (E)-caryophyllene (11.47%), bicyclogermacrene (5.86%), β-pinene (5.86%), and γ-muurolene (5.55%). The specimen A of M. tomentosa was characterized by γ-elemene (12.52%), germacrene D (11.45%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.22%), while specimen B contained spathulenol (40.70%), α-zingiberene (9.58%), and γ-elemene (6.89%). Additionally, the chemical composition of the EOs was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by the collection period. Furthermore, the EOs of the studied specimens, especially specimen A of E. punicifolia, showed a greater antioxidant activity in DPPH rather than TEAC, as represented by a significantly high inhibition percentage (408.0%).
Parkinson’s disease (PD) occurs in approximately 1% of the population over 65 years of age and has become increasingly more common with advances in age. The number of individuals older than 60 years has been increasing in modern societies, as well as life expectancy in developing countries; therefore, PD may pose an impact on the economic, social, and health structures of these countries. Oxidative stress is highlighted as an important factor in the genesis of PD, involving several enzymes and signaling molecules in the underlying mechanisms of the disease. This review presents updated data on the involvement of oxidative stress in the disease, as well as the use of antioxidant supplements in its therapy.
BackgroundCreatine (Cr) supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes.MethodsA randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9), placebo group (GP, N = 9), no treatment group (COT, N = 8) for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance) were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds) and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA.ResultsOnly GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356) and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025), with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001). No differences (pre- vs. post-training) in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (−0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268), higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209) and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276).ConclusionWe conclude that Cr monohydrate supplementation associated with a specific resistance program promoted a meaningful increase in muscle strength without inducing changes in body composition. The observed significant increase in uric acid and the decrease in TAS suggest that creatine supplementation, despite promoting acute effects on muscle strength improvement, might induce oxidative stress and decreases total antioxidant status of subjects.
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