IDRF assessment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is useful for predicting completeness of resection of neurogenic tumors. A larger international study is needed to confirm these results and to explore a possible correlation between preoperative IDRF status and survival.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy followed by adjuvant TMZ in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Newly diagnosed patients younger than 18 years with histologically proven DIPG were treated with focal radiotherapy to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions along with concurrent daily TMZ (75 mg/m(2)/day). Four weeks after completing the initial RT-TMZ schedule, adjuvant TMZ (200 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5) was given every 28 days up to six cycles. Responses/progressions were assessed by clinical and 2-monthly MRI follow-up studies. Between September 2005 and September 2009, 21 patients with newly diagnosed histologically confirmed DIPG were eligible for this study. Median age at diagnosis was 6.4 years (range 4-16 years). At last update in August 2010, 17 children have died, 1 child was alive with progressive disease and 3 with stable disease. Metastatic relapse was documented in the cerebral site in two patients and in spinal cord in two cases. The median time to progression was 7.5 months (range 28 days-14.5 months) and the median survival was 11.7 months (range 26 days-17.5 months). The 1-year PFS and the 1-year OS were 33 and 50%, respectively. Five patients presented radiological findings compatible with pseudoprogression during the treatment. Haematological toxicity (Grade III/IV thrombocytopenia and leucopenia) was the most commonly found and led to dose reductions of TMZ in 58% of the patients. TMZ with radiation therapy has not yielded any significant improvement in outcome of children with DIPG and is associated with higher toxicity compared with radiotherapy alone. Novel treatment modalities are needed to improve the outcome of these patients.
Breast elastography is being increasingly used to better characterize breast lesions. Published studies have shown that it improved specificity of B mode ultrasound. Two elastography modes are available: free-hand elastography and shear wave elastography. Free-hand elastography is obtained by a mechanic wave induced by the ultrasound probe, deforming the target, either by small movements induced by breathe. An elastogram is obtained and displayed either as a colour map or a size ratio or elasticity ratio measurement. The second mode is shear wave elastography; two methods are available: Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) and ARFI mode (Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse). Shear wave elastography is less operator-dependent than free-hand elastography mode and provides a quantitative approach. A value of over 80kPa (SWE) or velocity results of over 2m/s (ARFI) are considered as suspicious. False negatives may occur in soft breast cancers (mucinous carcinoma, carcinoma with an inflammatory stroma, etc.) and false positives may be seen with poorly deformable benign lesions such as old fibrous adenomas. In practical use, elastography is a useful complementary tool for undetermined breast lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4a or BI-RADS 3, or for cystic lesions but cannot avoid fine needle aspiration or core biopsy if ultrasound features are clearly suspicious.
This semiological analysis confirms the role of imaging in diagnosing the etiology of ovarian lesions in children and adolescents and emphasizes the importance identifying tumoral hypervascularity, which, in addition to classic criteria, is highly predictive of malignancy.
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