Background The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of healthcare services worldwide, especially in underdeveloped countries. There is a clear need to develop novel computer-assisted diagnosis tools to provide rapid and cost-effective screening in places where massive traditional testing is not feasible. Lung ultrasound is a portable, easy to disinfect, low cost and non-invasive tool that can be used to identify lung diseases. Computer-assisted analysis of lung ultrasound imagery is a relatively recent approach that has shown great potential for diagnosing pulmonary conditions, being a viable alternative for screening and diagnosing COVID-19. Objective To evaluate and compare the performance of deep-learning techniques for detecting COVID-19 infections from lung ultrasound imagery. Methods We adapted different pre-trained deep learning architectures, including VGG19, InceptionV3, Xception, and ResNet50. We used the publicly available POCUS dataset comprising 3326 lung ultrasound frames of healthy, COVID-19, and pneumonia patients for training and fine-tuning. We conducted two experiments considering three classes (COVID-19, pneumonia, and healthy) and two classes (COVID-19 versus pneumonia and COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19) of predictive models. The obtained results were also compared with the POCOVID-net model. For performance evaluation, we calculated per-class classification metrics (Precision, Recall, and F1-score) and overall metrics (Accuracy, Balanced Accuracy, and Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve). Lastly, we performed a statistical analysis of performance results using ANOVA and Friedman tests followed by post-hoc analysis using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test with the Holm’s step-down correction. Results InceptionV3 network achieved the best average accuracy (89.1%), balanced accuracy (89.3%), and area under the receiver operating curve (97.1%) for COVID-19 detection from bacterial pneumonia and healthy lung ultrasound data. The ANOVA and Friedman tests found statistically significant performance differences between models for accuracy, balanced accuracy and area under the receiver operating curve. Post-hoc analysis showed statistically significant differences between the performance obtained with the InceptionV3-based model and POCOVID-net, VGG19-, and ResNet50-based models. No statistically significant differences were found in the performance obtained with InceptionV3- and Xception-based models. Conclusions Deep learning techniques for computer-assisted analysis of lung ultrasound imagery provide a promising avenue for COVID-19 screening and diagnosis. Particularly, we found that the InceptionV3 network provides the most promising predictive results from all AI-based techniques evaluated in this work. InceptionV3- and Xception-based models can be used to further develop a viable computer-assisted screening tool for COVID-19 based on ultrasound imagery.
The edge, the fog, the cloud, and even the end-user's devices play a key role in the management of the health sensitive content/data lifecycle. However, the creation and management of solutions including multiple applications executed by multiple users in multiple environments (edge, the fog, and the cloud) to process multiple health repositories that, at the same time, fulfilling non-functional requirements (NFRs) represents a complex challenge for health care organizations. This paper presents the design, development, and implementation of an architectural model to create, on-demand, edge-fog-cloud processing structures to continuously handle big health data and, at the same time, to execute services for fulfilling NFRs. In this model, constructive and modular blocks, implemented as microservices and nanoservices, are recursively interconnected to create edge-fog-cloud processing structures as infrastructureagnostic services. Continuity schemes create dataflows through the blocks of edge-fog-cloud structures and enforce, in an implicit manner, the fulfillment of NFRs for data arriving and departing to/from each block of each edge-fog-cloud structure. To show the feasibility of this model, a prototype was built using this model, which was evaluated in a case study based on the processing of health data for supporting critical decision-making procedures in remote patient monitoring. This study considered scenarios where end-users and medical staff received insights discovered when processing electrocardiograms (ECGs) produced by sensors in wireless IoT devices as well as where physicians received patient records (spirometry studies, ECGs and tomography images) and warnings raised when online analyzing and identifying anomalies in the analyzed ECG data. A scenario where organizations manage multiple simultaneous each edge-fog-cloud structure for processing of health data and contents delivered to internal and external staff was also studied. The evaluation of these scenarios showed the feasibility of applying this model to the building of solutions interconnecting multiple services/applications managing big health data through different environments. INDEX TERMS Big health data, edge-fog-cloud, health-IoT processing, Internet of Things, microservice architecture.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model.
Vehicular ad hoc networks have been identified as a key technology for enabling safety and infotainment applications in the context of smart and connected vehicles. In this sense, diverse approaches of multi-hop broadcast protocols have been proposed to collect and disseminate context information through the network. However, before vehicular ad hoc networks applications fulfill their expected potential to connect smart vehicles, several issues must be addressed. Among these issues, those related to security are of particular importance. In this article, the main security issues of broadcast message dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks are discussed. Moreover, a review of the most relevant threats and proposed solutions to secure broadcast message dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks is presented and discussed. As mentioned, security is an important topic which has not been fully addressed in vehicular ad hoc networks; therefore, the aim of this article is to introduce security issues and proposed solutions related to three main security concerns associated with the message dissemination process in vehicular ad hoc networks: network access, data consistency, and broadcast protocols.
The topic of spectral line suppression is of major importance when designing impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) systems. The presence of spectral lines in the power spectral density (PSD) may limit the maximum transmission power to comply with UWB regulations, thus, affecting the system performance. Although previous works have shown the advantages of IR-UWB over fiber (UWBoF) implementations, the topic of spectral line suppression in PSD in such systems has not been entirely addressed. This letter proposes a simple IR-UWBoF system using spectral line free (SLF) convolutional codes to address this topic. Experimental results show that the proposed system offers improved PSD characteristics compared to conventional IR-UWBoF implementations. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the proposed system is able to deliver SLF IR-UWB signals over single-mode fibers up to 30 km.ABSTRACT: This article presents a novel active W-band phase shifter implemented using IHP SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) 0.25-mm SG25H1 technology with three vector (0 -120 -240 ) sum technique. The integrated chip consists of a 3-way Wilkinson power divider/ combiner with 0 -120 -240 phase shifting lines and three low-noise amplifiers (LNA) working at 77 GHz, which comprises a total of 1.5 3 Figure 5 Degradation of SFL convolutionally coded Q-BOPPM TH-IR UWB signals after the fiber transmission: (a) MATLAB signal; (b) as measured at point A in Figure 3; (c) as measured in B2B configuration at point B in Figure 3; (d) as measured after 20-km SMF transmission; and (e) as measured after 30-km SMF transmission. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
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