The paper studies the impact of bank specific, industry specific and macroeconomic factors affecting profitability of Indian Banks in a dynamic model framework. The persistence of bank profits and endogeneity of the factors have been accounted for using Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) as Banking Industry. This shows that the product markets of Indian Banks are moderately competitive, and less opaque due to asymmetry in information. The Indian banking sector is not far away from becoming a perfectly competitive industry. Bank specific variables; capital to assets ratio, operating efficiency and diversification have been found to be significantly and positively affecting the bank profits. Credit risk, measured by provisions for bad debts, negatively impacts the bank profitability. The study also tests the Structure conduct Hypothesis (SCP) by using Herfindahl -Hirschman Index (HHI) and finds evidence in its support. Bank profits responds positively to the GDP growth, indicating that bank profits are procyclical to the growth of economy whereas the increase in inflation rate affects bank profits negatively .It is observed that the crisis period did not make any significant effect on profitability of banks .The study concludes that there is a moderate degree of persistence of bank profits and most of the determinants of profits have a positive and a significant impact on profitability of banks which implies that Indian Banks in the last decade have been moving towards efficiency and dynamism. JEL Classification codes: C4 G21 G28 G320
Background: The emerging role of stem cell technology and transplantation has helped scientists to study their potential role inneural repair and regeneration.The fateof stem cells is determined by their niche, consisting of surrounding cells and the secreted trophic growth factors. This interim report evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy (if any) of bone marrow-derived mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNC) in chronic ischemic stroke by studying the release of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF). Methods: Twenty stroke patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited with the following inclusion criteria: 3 months to 1.5 years from the index event, Medical Research Council (MRC) grade of hand muscles of at least 2, Brunnstrom stage 2-5, conscious, and comprehendible. They were randomized to one group receiving autologous BM-MNC (mean 60-70 million) and to another group receiving saline infusion (placebo). All patients were administered a neuromotor rehabilitation regime for 8 weeks. Clinical assessments [Fugl Meyer scale (FM), modified Barthel index (mBI), MRC grade, Ashworth tone scale] were carried out and serum VEGF and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. Results: No serious adverse events were observed during the study. There was no statistically significant clinical improvement between the groups (FM: 95% CI 15.2-5.35, p = 0.25; mBI: 95% CI 14.3-4.5, p = 0.31). VEGF and BDNF expression was found to be greater in group 1 compared to group 2 (VEGF: 442.1 vs. 400.3 pg/ml, p = 0.67; BDNF: 21.3 vs. 19.5 ng/ml) without any statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Autologous mononuclear stem cell infusion is safe and tolerable by chronic ischemic stroke patients. The released growth factors (VEGF and BDNF) in the microenvironment could be due to the paracrine hypothesis of stem cell niche and neurorehabilitation regime.
African American women are at a greater risk for exposure to multiple traumatic events and are less likely to seek mental health services than White women. Many women report avoidant and passive coping strategies placing them at an increased risk for lower psychological adjustment. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the role of culturally relevant factors such as spirituality, self-esteem, and social support as significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping among African American female trauma survivors. The study utilized secondary data from the B-WISE project (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) with a sample of 161 community-based African American women with a self-reported history of trauma. Results indicate that participants with higher self-esteem and existential well-being were more likely to cope actively with daily life stressors. However, socio-demographics were not significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping at the multivariate level. Implications for clinical practice are discussed along with the Strong Black Woman (SBW) ideology, which may explain over-reporting of positive attributes such as self-esteem and existential well-being. Limitations of the study and directions of future research are also discussed.
PurposeThe outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented shock to the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) economy and their financial markets have plummeted significantly due to it. This paper adds to the recent literature on contagion due to spillover by uniquely examining the presence of pairwise contagion or volatility transmissions in stock markets returns of India, Brazil, Russia, China and USA prior to and during COVID-19 pandemic period.Design/methodology/approachIn this study, the generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) by Bollerslev (1986) under diagonal parameterization is used to estimate multivariate GARCH framework also known as BEKK (Baba EngleKraft and Kroner) model on stock market returns of BRIC nations and the US.FindingsThe empirical results show that the model captures the volatility spillovers and display statistical significance for own past mean and volatility with both short- and long-run persistence effects. Own volatility spillovers (Heatwave phenomenon) have been found to be highest for the US, China and Brazil compared to Russia and India. The coefficients indicate persistence of volatility for each country in terms of its own past errors. The highest and long-term spillover effect is found between US and Russia. The results recommend that Russia is least vulnerable to outside shocks. Finally after examining the pairwise results, it is suggested that the BRIC countries stock indices have exhibited volatility spillover due to the COVID-19 pandemic.Research limitations/implicationsThe study may be extended to include other emerging market economies under a dynamic framework.Practical implicationsResearchers and policymakers may draw useful insights on cross-market interdependencies regarding the spillovers in BRIC countries' stock markets. It also helps design international portfolio diversification strategies and in constructing optimal portfolios during COVID and in a post-COVID world.Originality/valueCOVID-19 has been an improbable event in the history of the world which can have a large impact on the financial economies across the emerging countries. This event can be deemed to be informative enough to measure the co-movements of the equity markets amongst cross-country return series, which has not been investigated so far for BRIC nations.
We aimed to assess the diagnostic and economic value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) versus single-gene testing, and of liquid biopsy (LBx) versus tissue biopsy (TBx) in non-small-cell lung cancer biomarker testing through literature review. Embase and MEDLINE were searched to identify relevant studies (n = 43) from 2015 to 2020 in adults with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. For NGS versus single-gene testing, concordance was 70–99% and sensitivity was 86–100%. For LBx versus TBx, specificity was 43–100% and sensitivity was ≥60%. Turnaround times were longer for NGS versus single-gene testing (but not vs sequential testing) and faster for LBx versus TBx. NGS was cost-effective, and LBx reduced US per-patient costs. NGS versus single-gene testing and LBx versus TBx were concordant. NGS and LBx may be cost-effective for initial screening.
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