Learning style is the composite of cognitive, affective, and physiological characteristics that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts and responds to the learning environment. Felder – Solomon Index of Learning Style (ILS) includes Sensitive/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal and Sequential/ Global, Active/reflective. The learning strategies are a major indicator of exam performance of students.Objective: To find the association between academiclearning strategies and annual examination results among medical students of King Edward Medical University.Study Design: Cross – sectional study design.Study Setting and Duration: King Edward Medical University and 3 months.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among the 3rd, 4th, and 5th year medical students of KEMU Lahore. Informed consent was taken. A total of 300 students, 100 each from 3rd, 4th and 5th year were taken. 132 males (44%) and 168 females (56%) were part of the study. Simple Random sampling (non-pro-bability sampling) was used.Results: The overall dominant learning strategies among students of King Edward Medical University were sensing/SNS (64.3%), visual/VIS (80.7%), sequential/SEQ (63.7%) and Active/ACT (50.3%). Chi squared test for individual learning combinations against achiever types showed no significant association between academic learning strategies and annual exam performance (p value > 0.05). Results also showed that females performed better academically than their male counterparts.
Due to limitations of the current methods for monitoring flap circulation, newer methods with better diagnostic accuracy are needed. A drop in blood glucose levels within flap is a simple method that can be widely used; however, this method has been examined only in small cohorts. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of blood glucose measurements within flaps in early detection of venous compromise. We sampled 127 pedicled and free flaps, including replants, performed on patients between 12 and 60 years of age. Within flap blood glucose measurements were performed using pinprick and a blood glucose meter at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after operation. Daily examination for clinical signs of venous compromise was used to determine flap viability for up to 7th day after operation. Of the 127 flaps, 76 (60%) were performed on men and the mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 35.8 ± 12.1 years. A cut-off value of 62 mg/dL was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity and positive predictive values of within flap blood glucose for determining venous compromise were 90% and 91%, respectively, whereas the specificity and negative predictive values were 78% and 76%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of within flap blood glucose was 87%. We conclude that blood glucose measurement within flap has acceptable diagnostic accuracy and should be used for early detection of venous compromise.
Objective:To determine the association of Lady Health Worker’s role with immunization of children in Pakistan.Methods:Secondary analysis was conducted on data obtained from Pakistan’s Demographic and Health Survey. Children who did not receive all doses of vaccines were considered incompletely immunized or vice versa. The association between determinants was assessed by simple and multivariable binary logistic regression.Results:The mothers and fathers had a mean age of 32.7 (SD+8.6) years and 37.9 (SD +10.1) years, respectively. Age of mother greater than 35 (OR=0.93; 95% CI:0.70-1.25); born in Baluchistan (OR=3.47,95% CI:2.21-5.49); rural area dwellers (OR=2.04; 95% CI:1.65-2.51); female gender (OR=1.06; 95% CI:0.87-1.29); birth order (of last born child) greater than 7 (OR=2.21, 95% CI:1.60-3.06); delivered at home (OR=2.20, 95% CI:1.76-2.74); long distance to health care facility (OR=2.66, 95% CI:2.16-3.28); and no LHW visit in last 12 months (OR=1.91, CI:1.48-2.47) were significantly associated with incomplete immunization in bivariate analysis. In final model of multinomial regression analysis the absence of visit by LHW in last 12 months was the most significant factor when all risk factors were analyzed in last modelConclusions:This study has concluded that visit of LHW in last 12 months was significantly associated with immunization.
Objectives: This study investigated the psychosocial risk factors of myocardial infarction and time related adverse effects of administration of streptokinase on short-term morbidity and mortality in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: One hundred patients with STEMI treated with streptokinase in the hospital setting were prospectively enrolled in the study. The primary outcome parameter was the incidence of major adverse cardiac events. During hospital stay the psychosocial and demographic risk factors were also investigated. Results: The overall mortality rate was similar in both groups and it was not significant. (5.7% vs 14.5%; P = 0.18). The number of recurrent chest pain was significantly higher in the group 2 compared to the group 1 (25% vs 62.5%; P = .01). The number of hypotesion was significantly higher in the group 1 as compared to the group 2 (30.7% vs 6.2%; P = .009). The demographic and psychosocial risk factors were recorded. Conclusions:The early intravenous administration of streptokinase in the hospital setting leads to a reduced rate of major cardiovascular events compared to delayed administration beyond 2 hours. However, mortality rates were not significantly affected. Secondary prevention should be targeted on modifiable demographic, dietary, and psychosocial risk factors of STEMI.
Background: Globally, approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which are responsible for 96% of all hepatitis-related mortality. Pakistan has the second highest prevalence of HCV in the world. Methods: We conducted this study to ascertain the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infections in Punjab. A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 24 Hepatitis Prevention and Treatment Clinics of the Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Center clinics, Lahore. A total of 141,705 individuals who visited the clinics during 2017-18 were included for seroprevalence analysis of hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (Anti-HCV). In addition, 12,427 individuals from the main group underwent detailed face-to-face interviews based on a predesigned questionnaire for risk factor assessment. Results: The overall prevalence for HBV and HCV was 8.4% and 42.7%, respectively. Of those with HCV infection, 4.2% had a co-infection. The transgender population had a higher seroprevalence of HBV (11.8%) and HCV (58.8%). Higher HBV seroprevalence was found in a younger age group (16-30 years), while the older age group (>61 years) had a higher HCV seroprevalence. Geographically, Muzaffargarh district had the highest HBV seroprevalence at 26%, followed by Rajanpur district (20.3%). HCV seroprevalence was significantly (P value <0.05) higher in Shujabad district (66.4%), followed by Muzaffargarh (65.2%). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, age, gender, intravenous injections, hijama therapy, dental procedure, circumcision by barbers, barber shaving, hospitalization and having had surgical procedures were all found to be significant risk factors (OR >1; p<0.05) for HBV and HCV. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for proper implementation of preventive and control strategies, as well as formal evaluation and monitoring mechanisms. Sustainable and adequate funding of public-sector hepatitis programs is also an extremely important area that should not be neglected.
Ovarian tumors, or ovarian neoplasms, are benign or malignant tumors arising from the ovaries. They may arise from any of the three components of ovary i.e. surface epithelium, germ cells and the stroma of the ovary including sex cords. Tumors in the ovary can also be secondary or metastatic tumors. Objective: To determine the frequency of Ovarian Tumors according to WHO Histological classification and their relation to age at diagnosis in almost one year. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, that included all the consecutive cases of ovarian neoplasms diagnosed at the Pathology department of a public sector university in Lahore from 1 January 2015 to 13 February 2016. Results: In 95 female patients diagnosed with ovarian tumors, the mean age was found to be 29. 11.493 with a range of 3-65 years. Tumors were most common between the ages of 15 to 30 years. The highest rates of malignancy were in the 0-15 and 45-60 age groups (Figure 1). About 78.9% of the tumors (75/95) were benign, 1.1% (1/95) were borderline and 20% (19/95) were malignant (Figure 3), 72.6% (69/95) were epithelial tumors, 23.2% (22/95) were germ cell and 4.2% (4/95) were sex cord stromal tumors ( Figure 4). Among the 95 cases, serous tumors were the most common (49.5%), followed by mucinous (16.8%) and teratomas (15.8%). Conclusion: According to our study, ovarian tumors were common between the age of 15 to 29 years. Benign neoplastic lesions were more common than malignant neoplastic lesions. The frequency of malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms found in our research differed from other studies conducted in Pakistan. There is a significant association of ovarian tumors in age less than 30 year as compared to older age groups (P < 0.001).
Objective: To find out the association of seeking ophthalmic assessment in children with parental history of refractive errors. Methods: After the approval of ethical review board, an analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in eight high schools of public and private sector at Lahore during the period of seven months from August 2017 to March 2018. Multistage random sampling technique was opted and 2000 study subjects were recruited including 50% boys and 50% girls. Informed consent was obtained and data was collected on a structured questionnaire. The data was organized, entered in version 23 of IBM SPSS and analyzed by the use of statistical tools. Results: Age of the respondents ranged between nine to 18 years with a mean of 13.40±1.82 SD. Parental history of wearing spectacles was present in 21.3% of the fathers and 28.6% of the mothers. Moreover, 72.4% of the participants never visited eye care professional. Among private schools, an association was found between the visit of boys to eye care professional and maternal positive history of wearing spectacles (p-value 0.019). A significant association was found between the positive paternal history of wearing spectacles and visit of the female strudy subjects to an eye care professional (p-value 0.001). In public schools, there was an association between visit of children to eye care services and positive history of mothers about the use of spectacles (p-value 0.018). Conclusions: This study concludes that positive maternal history of wearing spectacles is associated with the ophthalmic examination of children in both public and private school. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.35.3.1010 How to cite this:Latif MZ, Khan MA, Afzal S, Gilani SA. Association of seeking ophthalmic assessment in children with parental history of refractive errors. Pak J Med Sci. 2019;35(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.35.3.1010 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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