Preoperative skin preparation is an effective method to prevent surgical site infections (SSI). Alcoholic chlorhexidine (CHG) and povidone iodine (PV-I) are the most widely used antiseptic agents. This meta-analysis aims to determine their efficacy in reducing natural bacterial skin flora in clean orthopedic surgery. A systematic search was conducted through current literature up to June 2021 to identify clinical randomized trials that compared the efficacy of alcoholic chlorhexidine and povidone iodine in reducing bacterial skin colonization after preoperative skin preparation. A meta-analysis was conducted. Of 235 screened articles, 8 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrate a significantly lower positive culture rate in the chlorhexidine group than in the povidone iodine group (RR = 0.53, 95% Cl: 0.32–0.88). The present data show the superiority of chlorhexidine in reducing the normal bacterial flora compared to povidone iodine in clean orthopedic surgery.
Locally applied vancomycin is increasingly being used in primary hip and knee arthroplasty to reduce the risk of infection. Despite encouraging initial results, considerable debate remains on the basis of the data currently available. In particular, it has been unclear up to now whether local vancomycin is suitable to further reduce the risk of infection even if the rate of infection is already low (< 1%). In this monocentric retrospective cohort study, all primary total hip and knee arthroplasties performed between 2013 and 2018 were included. After a change in procedure at the hospital, 1 g vancomycin powder was applied intraarticularly before wound closure. The remaining perioperative procedure was constant over the investigation period. The follow-up was one year. The presence of an infection according to the currently valid MSIS criteria was defined as the endpoint. In patients with TKA two infections (0.3%) were observed under vancomycin prophylaxis in contrast to 44 infections (1.3%) in the control group (p = 0.033). In patients with THA two infections (0.5%) were observed under vancomycin prophylaxis and 48 infections (1.1%) in the control group without local vancomycin but this difference was statistically not significant. No wound complications requiring revision were observed as a result of the vancomycin. On the basis of the results of this study, intraarticular application of vancomycin powder in total hip and knee arthroplasty may be considered. Prospective randomized studies have to confirm this promising results prior a common recommendation. Level of Evidence III Retrospective cohort study. Infections after endoprosthetic hip or knee replacement, in spite of all perioperative improvements, are observed with an incidence of 1-2% 1-4. Despite the apparently low risk, efforts to further reduce the risk are sensible in light of the consequences for the patients concerned, with the potential for several follow-up operations and the often limited functional outcome. In spinal surgery, the reduction in the rate of infection through locally applied vancomycin was established more than 10 years ago and has been well documented by meta-analyses and animal experiments 5-8. The positive effect is set against minor complications caused in 0.3% of cases, mostly culture-negative seroma formation 9, so that it is even used successfully in children 10. Otte et al. were able to show that intrawound vancomycin powder lowers the infection rate after knee and hip arthroplasty from 1.6 to 0.5%, compared with a control group 11. In a subgroup analysis, the effect in revision operations was even greater, with a reduction of the infection rate from 3.9 to 0%. Patel et al. showed a reduction in the infection rate through vancomycin of 2.7-0.3% and determined a number needed to treat (NNT) of 47.5 12. Systemic side effects were not observed. The local application of vancomycin was assessed to be safe and cost-effective. Dial et al. observed a similar effect in primary hip arthroplasty, with a lowering of the infection rate...
There are multiple attempts to decrease costs in the healthcare system while maintaining a high treatment quality. Digital therapies receive increasing attention in clinical practice, mainly relating to home-based exercises supported by mobile devices, eventually in combination with wearable sensors. The aim of this study was to determine if patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) could benefit from gait training on crutches conducted by a mobile robot in a clinical setting. Method: This clinical trial was conducted with 30 patients following total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients received the conventional physiotherapy program in the clinic (including 5 min of gait training supported by a physiotherapist). The intervention group of 15 patients passed the same standard physiotherapy program, but the 5-min gait training supported by a physiotherapist was replaced by 2 × 5 min of gait training conducted by the robot. Length of stay of the patients was set to five days. Biomechanical gait parameters of the patients were assessed pre-surgery and upon patient discharge. Results: While before surgery no significant difference in gait parameters was existent, patients from the intervention group showed a significant higher absolute walking speed (0.83 vs. 0.65 m/s, p = 0.029), higher relative walking speed (0.2 vs. 0.16 m/s, p = 0.043) or shorter relative cycle time (3.35 vs. 3.68 s, p = 0.041) than the patients from the control group. Conclusion: The significant higher walking speed of patients indicates that such robot-based gait training on crutches may shorten length of stay (LOS) in acute clinics. However, the number of patients involved was rather small, thus calling for further studies.
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