In arsenic (As) endemic areas of southeast Asia, where a subsistence rice-based diet is prevalent, As exposure from food is mainly focused on rice intake. However, consumption of wheat is substantial and increasing. We present a probabilistic assessment of increased cancer risk from wheat-based food intake in a study population of rural Bihar, India where As exposure is endemic. Total As in wheat grains (43.64±48.19 µg/kg, n=72) collected from 77 households across 19 villages was found to be lower than reported As in wheat grains from other southeast Asian countries but higher than a previous study from Bihar. This is the first study where
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to develop a methodology which amalgamates quantitative and qualitative approaches to determine the best placement of mobile logistics hubs (MLH) to be established in different parts of Nepal as a part of real-life project, “Augmentation of National and Local-Level Emergency Logistics Preparedness in Nepal” (2017–2020), implemented by the World Food Programme in cooperation with the Government of Nepal.Design/methodology/approachThe study develops a methodology using a combination of a modified version of the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) and focus group discussion. The MCLP model is used to determine the optimal number and spatial location of MLHs, and focus group discussion is used to identify the five first-priority strategic MLH locations using expert knowledge.FindingsThe authors identify the five first-priority locations for establishing MLHs using an amalgamation of quantitative approach (mathematical model) and qualitative approach (focus group discussion). By amalgamating mathematical model with expert knowledge, findings acceptable to a wide range of stakeholders are obtained. The focus group discussion helps to pinpoint the location of MLHs to city-level granularity which is otherwise impossible with data available on hand.Research limitations/implicationsAlthough multiple experts’ judgements were obtained via focus group discussion, subjectivity and possible bias is inevitable. Overall, the quantitative results of the study are purely based on the data available during the study period; therefore, having updated data could possibly improve the quality of the results.Originality/valueThis study is the first of its kind that uses an amalgamation of mathematical model and expert knowledge to determine the strategic locations of MLHs and has been successful to an extent that the selected locations have been vetted by the government of Nepal for establishing MLHs and are undergoing implementation in real life. This study also considers multiple disaster scenarios and employs the concepts of human development, disaster risk and transportation accessibility to reflect Nepal's socioeconomic, geo-climatic and topographical features.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.