This paper introduces the Flexible Global Ocean‐Atmosphere‐Land System Model: Grid‐Point Version 3 (FGOALS‐g3) and evaluates its basic performance based on some of its participation in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) experiments. Our results show that many significant improvements have been achieved by FGOALS‐g3 in terms of climatological mean states, variabilities, and long‐term trends. For example, FGOALS‐g3 has a small (−0.015°C/100 yr) climate drift in 700‐yr preindustrial control (piControl) runs and smaller biases in climatological mean variables, such as the land/sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and seasonal soil moisture cycle, compared with its previous version FGOALS‐g2 during the historical period. The characteristics of climate variabilities, for example, Madden‐Julian oscillation (MJO) eastward/westward propagation ratios, spatial patterns of interannual variability of tropical SST anomalies, and relationship between the East Asian Summer Monsoon and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), are well captured by FGOALS‐g3. In particular, the cooling trend of globally averaged surface temperature during 1940–1970, which is a challenge for most CMIP3 and CMIP5 models, is well reproduced by FGOALS‐g3 in historical runs. In addition to the external forcing factors recommended by CMIP6, anthropogenic groundwater forcing from 1965 to 2014 was incorporated into the FGOALS‐g3 historical runs.
In this work, we
report a phenomenon that upconversion emission
intensity of Er3+ was enhanced by cadmium. Cd2+ was taken with 0, 3, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mol % as a new dopant to
codope LiY0.78Yb0.20Er0.02F4, meanwhile the doping effects on the crystal structure, morphology,
and upconversion fluorescence emission are investigated by XRD, Rietveld
refinement, TEM, and upconversion spectroscopy analysis methods in
detail. The green upconversion emission intensity was enhanced, and
the maximum emission intensities were enhanced to twice when 10 mol
% Cd2+ was codoped into tetragonal LiYF4, while
its decay lifetime was reduced. Additionally, we further designed
the synthesis of the homogeneous LiYF4:20%Yb,2%Er,10%Cd@LiYF4 of which the emission intensity is 11 times higher than that
of the Cd2+-free nanocrystals, meanwhile an intriguing
morphology of core–shell nanocrystals was obtained. This investigation
may be useful for the design and improvement of upconversion materials
for fulfilling the prerequisite of the practical application.
The preparation technology
and limited performance of ion conducting
(IC) layers are the two main obstacles for electrochromic devices
(ECDs) toward commercial application. In this work, the Li
films were fabricated
by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering with a Li–Al alloy
target and show promising potential as an IC layer in ECDs owing to
their high transparency, ultrahigh stability, and good ionic conductivity.
The integrated all-solid-state ECDs, with the structure of ITO/NiO
/WO3/ITO, manifest less leakage current
density (<10 mA/cm2), high optical regulation (ΔT = 74.4%), excellent cyclic stability (changing less than
10% after 104 cycles), and short response time (5.7 s for
coloring time, 2.2 s for bleaching time). A large-scale ECD with the
area of 10 × 10 cm2 was fabricated and displayed remarkable
potential as a commercial application for dynamic windows.
The second version of Chinese Academy of Sciences Earth System Model (CAS-ESM2) is described. Strength and weakness of the model simulations from the CMIP6 DECK experiments are described along possible causes. The model has an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 3.4 K with a positive cloud feedback from the shortwave radiation.
The three-member historical simulations by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model, version f3-L (CAS FGOALS-f3-L), which is contributing to phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), are described in this study. The details of the CAS FGOALS-f3-L model, experiment settings and output datasets are briefly introduced. The datasets include monthly and daily outputs from the atmospheric, oceanic, land and sea-ice component models of CAS FGOALS-f3-L, and all these data have been published online in the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF, https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/projects/cmip6/). The three ensembles are initialized from the 600th, 650th and 700th model year of the preindustrial experiment (piControl) and forced by the same historical forcing provided by CMIP6 from 1850 to 2014. The performance of the coupled model is validated in comparison with some recent observed atmospheric and oceanic datasets. It is shown that CAS FGOALS-f3-L is able to reproduce the main features of the modern climate, including the climatology of air surface temperature and precipitation, the long-term changes in global mean surface air temperature, ocean heat content and sea surface steric height, and the horizontal and vertical distribution of temperature in the ocean and atmosphere. Meanwhile, like other state-of-the-art coupled GCMs, there are still some obvious biases in the historical simulations, which are also illustrated. This paper can help users to better understand the advantages and biases of the model and the datasets.
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