If the physical properties of C(60) fullerene molecules can be controlled in C(60) products already in use in various applications, the potential for industrial development will be significant. Encapsulation of a metal atom in the C(60) fullerene molecule is a promising way to control its physical properties. However, the isolation of C(60)-based metallofullerenes has been difficult due to their insolubility. Here, we report the complete isolation and determination of the molecular and crystal structure of polar cationic Li@C(60) metallofullerene. The physical and chemical properties of Li@C(60) cation are compared with those of pristine C(60). It is found that the lithium cation is located at off-centre positions in the C(60)-I(h) cage interior and that the [Li(+)@C(60)] salt has a unique two-dimensional structure. The present method of purification and crystallization of C(60)-based metallofullerenes provides a new C(60) fullerene material that contains a metal atom.
This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10(14) photon/mm(2). The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 μm square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.
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