A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton–proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosities of approximately 4.8 fb−1 collected at √s=7 TeV in 2011 and 5.8 fb−1 at √s=8 TeV in 2012. Individual searches in the channels H→ZZ(⁎)→4ℓ, H→γγ and H→WW(⁎)→eνμν in the 8 TeV data are combined with previously published results of searches for H→ZZ(⁎), WW(⁎), bb and τ+τ− in the 7 TeV data and results from improved analyses of the H→ZZ(⁎)→4ℓ and H→γγ channels in the 7 TeV data. Clear evidence for the production of a neutral boson with a measured mass of 126.0±0.4(stat)±0.4(sys) GeV is presented. This observation, which has a significance of 5.9 standard deviations, corresponding to a background fluctuation probability of 1.7×10−9, is compatible with the production and decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson
We present a comprehensive study of the physical properties of ∼ 105 galaxies with measurable star formation in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By comparing physical information extracted from the emission lines with continuum properties, we build up a picture of the nature of star‐forming galaxies at z < 0.2. We develop a method for aperture correction using resolved imaging and show that our method takes out essentially all aperture bias in the star formation rate (SFR) estimates, allowing an accurate estimate of the total SFRs in galaxies. We determine the SFR density to be 1.915+0.02−0.01 (random)+0.14−0.42 (systematic) h7010−2 M⊙ yr−1 Mpc−3 at z= 0.1 (for a Kroupa initial mass function) and we study the distribution of star formation as a function of various physical parameters. The majority of the star formation in the low‐redshift Universe takes place in moderately massive galaxies (1010–1011 M⊙), typically in high surface brightness disc galaxies. Roughly 15 per cent of all star formation takes place in galaxies that show some sign of an active nucleus. About 20 per cent occurs in starburst galaxies. By focusing on the SFR per unit mass we show that the present to past average SFR, the Scalo b‐parameter, is almost constant over almost three orders of magnitude in mass, declining only at M* > 1010 M⊙. The volume averaged b parameter is 0.408+0.005−0.002 (random)+0.029−0.090 (systematic)h−170. We use this value to constrain the star formation history of the Universe. For the concordance cosmology the present‐day Universe is forming stars at at least 1/3 of its past average rate. For an exponentially declining cosmic star formation history this corresponds to a time‐scale of 7+0.7−1.5 Gyr. In agreement with other work we find a correlation between b and morphological type, as well as a tight correlation between the 4000‐Å break (D4000) and b. We discuss how D4000 can be used to estimate b parameters for high‐redshift galaxies.
This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted "base ΛCDM" in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H 0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s −1 Mpc −1 , a matter density parameter Ω m = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with n s = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of z re = 8.8+1.7 −1.4 . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find N eff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value N eff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to m ν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with |Ω K | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 0.002 < 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r 0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationary models with a V(φ) ∝ φ 2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected Corresponding author: G. Efstathiou, e-mail: email@example.comArticle published by EDP Sciences A13, page 1 of 63 A&A 594, A13 (2016) value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundanc...
Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).
We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of large-scale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to significant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters. Improved modelling of the small-scale polarization leads to more robust constraints on many parameters, with residual modelling uncertainties estimated to affect them only at the 0.5σ level. We find good consistency with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology having a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density Ωch2 = 0.120 ± 0.001, baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.0224 ± 0.0001, scalar spectral index ns = 0.965 ± 0.004, and optical depth τ = 0.054 ± 0.007 (in this abstract we quote 68% confidence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to 0.03% precision, with 100θ* = 1.0411 ± 0.0003. These results are only weakly dependent on the cosmological model and remain stable, with somewhat increased errors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the base-ΛCDM cosmology, the inferred (model-dependent) late-Universe parameters are: Hubble constant H0 = (67.4 ± 0.5) km s−1 Mpc−1; matter density parameter Ωm = 0.315 ± 0.007; and matter fluctuation amplitude σ8 = 0.811 ± 0.006. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the base-ΛCDM model. Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and considering single-parameter extensions) we constrain the effective extra relativistic degrees of freedom to be Neff = 2.99 ± 0.17, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction Neff = 3.046, and find that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained to ∑mν < 0.12 eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudes than predicted in base ΛCDM at over 2σ, which pulls some parameters that affect the lensing amplitude away from the ΛCDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAO data. The joint constraint with BAO measurements on spatial curvature is consistent with a flat universe, ΩK = 0.001 ± 0.002. Also combining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the dark-energy equation of state parameter is measured to be w0 = −1.03 ± 0.03, consistent with a cosmological constant. We find no evidence for deviations from a purely power-law primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r0.002 < 0.06. Standard big-bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the base-ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. The Planck base-ΛCDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey’s combined-probe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower fluctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in significant, 3.6σ, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value). Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data.
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.
We present the results of a large library of cosmological N‐body simulations, using power‐law initial spectra. The non‐linear evolution of the matter power spectra is compared with the predictions of existing analytic scaling formulae based on the work of Hamilton et al. The scaling approach has assumed that highly non‐linear structures obey ‘stable clustering’ and are frozen in proper coordinates. Our results show that, when transformed under the self‐similarity scaling, the scale‐free spectra define a non‐linear locus that is clearly shallower than would be required under stable clustering. Furthermore, the small‐scale non‐linear power increases as both the power spectrum index n and the density parameter Ω decrease, and this evolution is not well accounted for by the previous scaling formulae. This breakdown of stable clustering can be understood as resulting from the modification of dark matter haloes by continuing mergers. These effects are naturally included in the analytic ‘halo model’ for non‐linear structure; we use this approach to fit both our scale‐free results and also our previous cold dark matter data. This method is more accurate than the commonly used Peacock–Dodds formula and should be applicable to more general power spectra. Code to evaluate non‐linear power spectra using this method is available from http://as1.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/~res/software.html. Following publication, we will make the power‐law simulation data publically available through the Virgo website http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/Virgo/.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers