The use of markers placed over the tuber coxae on each side of a horse to aid identification of the relative movement of these structures at the trot, for teaching and research purposes, is described. In each case of hindleg lameness studied, the tuber coxae on the lame side showed a consistent increase in vertical displacement relative to that of the contralateral limb, and a characteristic pattern of movement throughout the stride irrespective of the site or cause of pain.
The study provides the basis for the development of computer simulations that could aid in training veterinarians in the diagnosis of lameness and, even, the objective assessment of expertise in this field.
Confusion about the nature of human reasoning and its appropriate application to patients has hampered veterinary students' development of these skills. Expertise is associated with greater ability to deploy pattern recognition (type 1 reasoning), which is aided by progressive development of data-driven, forward reasoning (in contrast to scientific, backward reasoning), analytical approaches that lead to schema acquisition. The associative nature of type 1 reasoning makes it prone to bias, particularly in the face of “cognitive miserliness,” when clues that indicate the need for triangulation with an analytical approach are ignored. However, combined reasoning approaches, from the earliest stages, are more successful than one approach alone, so it is important that those involved in curricular design and delivery promote student understanding of reasoning generally, and the situations in which reasoning goes awry, and develop students' ability to reason safely and accurately whether presented with a familiar case or with a case that they have never seen before.
Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered.
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug (NSAID) carprofen have been evaluated in 6 horses using a model of acute nonimmune inflammation. Following intravenous administration of 0.7 mg racemic carprofen/kg bwt, mean values for pharmacokinetic parameters were 18.1 h (elimination half‐life); 0.25 l/kg (volume of distribution, Vd [area]); 58.9 ml/min (clearance); and 57.9 μg/ml.h (area under plasma concentration time curve). Mean exudate: plasma concentration ratios exceeded 1.0 at all sampling times between 2 and 48 h. Swelling at the site of acute inflammation was significantly reduced but exudate leucocyte numbers were unchanged. Although carprofen produced moderate suppression of serum thromboxane B2 and exudate prostaglandin E2 synthesis, these effects were not related to carprofen concentrations in plasma or exudate. It was concluded that the anti‐oedematous action of carprofen was not attributable to inhibition of cyclo‐oxygenase.
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