Literature has yet to establish an appropriate treatment strategy for large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and AVMs located in eloquent areas. In this study, the treatment outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) with CyberKnife (CK) for large AVMs and AVMs in eloquent areas were evaluated. This study retrospectively evaluated 38 consecutive patients with AVMs treated with HSRT in the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center between August 2010 and July 2015. Obliteration rates and hemorrhage rates at 3-and 5-years of follow-up were calculated. Factors for hemorrhage and obliteration were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Fourteen (36.8%) patients had a history of hemorrhage. Twenty (52.6%) AVMs were larger than 10 mL, and 34 (89.5%) AVMs were located in eloquent areas. The majority of the AVMs (84.2%) were classified into high grades (grades 3, 4, and 5) using the Spetzler-Martin grading scale. The median modified radiosurgery-based AVM score was 2.05, and the median Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Score was 3. The mean marginal dose was 24.5 ± 2.5 Gy. Twenty-three and 15 patients received three-and five-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy, respectively. At 3 and 5 years posttreatment, two (2.0%/year) and six (6.7%/year) patients had hemorrhage with obliteration rates of 15.2% and 16.7%, respectively. AVM localization in eloquent areas was a risk factor for obliteration failure. This study revealed that HSRT with CK for large AVMs and AVMs located in eloquent areas contributed to hemorrhage risk reduction and obliteration, at least in the early stages.
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