Echolucent plaques and plaques with stenosis > or = 90% produced a higher number of embolic particles and therefore may be less suitable for balloon angioplasty and stenting. This ex vivo model can be used to identify high-risk lesions for balloon angioplasty and stenting and can aid in the evaluation of new devices being considered for carotid balloon angioplasty and stenting.
Endoleaks complicate a significant number of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs and may permit aneurysm growth and rupture. The type of graft used, the technique of graft insertion, and aortic anatomic features all affect the rate of endoleaks. Anatomic, chronologic, and physiologic classifications can facilitate endoleak reporting and improve understanding of their pathogenesis, significance, and fate.
Common iliac artery PTA is justified in most cases in which it is feasible. However, when PTAs are performed below the inguinal ligament, the results are markedly worse. One-year patency rates of PTA in this group of patients with threatened limbs are inferior to the patency rates of arterial bypass grafts, even when these bypasses are performed with a prosthetic material. PTA should not be considered as a primary treatment modality for patients with infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease who also have limb-threatening ischemia, except in unusual circumstances.
The coordinated early release of IL-1 beta and bFGF and the down-regulation of INF gamma seem to trigger an inflammatory response, thereby initiating IH. The process then is propagated by the release of PDGF-AA and TNF-alpha, with concomitant smooth muscle cell proliferation and production of extracellular matrix. It is likely that this complex milieu of local paracrine signaling is required to generate the hyperplastic response seen in failing vein grafts.
These results indicate that a PTFE bypass to an infrapopliteal artery remains a worthwhile option in patients without usable autologous vein. The secondary patency and limb salvage rates were acceptable in this setting and were not significantly different from the best results reported with prosthetic tibial/peroneal bypasses with distal vein cuffs or patches (74% at 1 year; 58% at 3 years), arteriovenous fistulas (71% at 1 year) or composite arm vein grafts (39% and 29% at 3 and 5 years, respectively).
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