The recent emergence of whitefly species of the genus Bemisia as virus vectors and pests worldwide has stimulated investigat i ons into their biology. The invasion of pantropical agroecosystems by an exotic whitefly and increased pressures by indigenous whiteflies elsewhere have led to the examination of Bemisia tabaci biology with a new perspective. The concept of host races or biotypes was proposed in the 1950s to describe select B. tabaci populations with definitive host associations and specific virus-vector capabilities. How ever, little attention has been given to the mechanisms involved. Biochemical, molecular, and whole-system approaches are underway to examine the under lying diversity among reproductively isolated popUlations or biotypes of B.tabaci. l present address:
SummaryEighteen populations of Bemisia tabaci, collected from different geographic locations (North & Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Europe), were studied to identify and compare biological and genetic characteristics that can be used to differentiate biotypes. The morphology of the fourth instar/pupal stage and compound eye structures of adults were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and found to be typical of the species among all biotypes and populations studied. Setae and spines of B. tabaci larval scales from the same colony were highly variable depending on the host plant species or leaf surface characteristics. The location and the morphology of caudal setae, characteristic of all B. tabaci studied to date, were present in all colonies. However, differences in adult body lengths and in the ability to induce phy to toxic disorders in certain plant species were found between biotypes or populations. The recently identified “B” biotype, characterised by a diagnostic esterase banding pattern and by its ability to induce phytotoxic responses in squash, honeysuckle and nightshade was readily distinguished from non‐“B” biotype populations. None of the non‐“B” biotypes studied, were found to induce phytotoxic responses. Nine populations examined showed typical “B” biotype characteristics, regardless of country of origin. All tested populations, determined as “B” or “B”‐like biotypes successfully mated with other “B” biotype colonies from different geographic areas. Non‐“B” biotype colonies did not interbreed with other biotypes.The B. tabaci populations were tested for their ability to transmit 15 whitefly‐transmitted geminiviruses (WTGs) from different geographic areas with a wide range of symptom types. All WTGs were transmitted by the “B” biotype colonies and by most non‐“B” biotype colonies, with the exception of three viruses found in ornamental plants which were non‐transmissible by any colony. Some non‐“B” biotypes would not transmit certain geminiviruses and some geminiviruses were more efficiently transmitted than were others.
A microscopic analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of the digestive, salivary, and reproductive systems of adult Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) B type was conducted using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The internal anatomy of B. tabaci was found to be similar to that reported for Trialeurodes vaporariorum. In a microscopic analysis of the salivary glands, we have shown that each primary salivary gland is composed of at least 13 cells varying in morphology and staining differentially, while the accessory salivary glands are composed of four morphologically similar cells. We analyzed the course of the alimentary canal in B. tabaci, demonstrated the internal morphology of the organs, and clarified the location of the filter chamber relative to other organs in the whitefly. Our observations confirm that the pair of structures extending from the connecting chamber are caeca that may aid in fluid movement through the midgut and are not Malpighian tubules, as previously suggested. We confirm an earlier finding that the whitefly lacks Malpighian tubules, having instead specialized Malpighian-like cells within the filter chamber at the juncture with the internal ileum. Finally, we provide the first scanning electron microscopic analysis showing the reproductive organs of B. tabaci. Our investigation provides clarified terminology for several components of the digestive and excretory system. We also provide drawings and micrographs that will aid future researchers in localizing the internal organs of B. tabaci. We expect our analysis to provide a valuable tool for studying B. tabaci / plant virus interactions and physiological and biological aspects of this insect.
A membrane feeding system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to track squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) DNA in whole whitefly body extracts and in saliva, honeydew, and hemolymph of its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, and a whitefly nonvector, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. SLCV ingestion was monitored by PCR in whiteflies that were given acquisition access periods (AAPs) ranging from 0.5 to 96 h on virus-infected plants. SLCV detection by PCR in whole body extracts was considered reflective of virus ingestion. As whiteflies were given longer AAPs, the number of whiteflies that ingested SLCV increased. SLCV DNA was detected in honeydew of vector and nonvector whiteflies, indicating that virions, viral DNA, or both passed unimpeded through the digestive system. SLCV DNA was detected in saliva and hemolymph of B. tabaci, but not in these fractions from nonvector whiteflies, despite virus ingestion by both. Although vector and nonvector whiteflies both ingested SLCV, only in the vector, B. tabaci, did virus cross the gut barrier, enter the hemolymph, or pass into the salivary system. These results suggest that digestive epithelia of nonvector whiteflies did not permit SLCV passage from the gut to hemocoel, whereas virus effectively crossed the analogous gut barrier in vector whiteflies.
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