Resumo A pandemia de COVID-19 tem desafiado pesquisadores e gestores a encontrar medidas de saúde pública que evitem o colapso dos sistemas de saúde e reduzam os óbitos. Esta revisão narrativa buscou sistematizar as evidências sobre o impacto das medidas de distanciamento social na epidemia de COVID-19 e discutir sua implementação no Brasil. Foram triados artigos sobre o efeito do distanciamento social na COVID-19 no PubMed, medRXiv e bioRvix, e analisados atos do poder público nos níveis federal e estadual para sumarizar as estratégias implementadas no Brasil. Os achados sugerem que o distanciamento social adotado por população é efetivo, especialmente quando combinado ao isolamento de casos e à quarentena dos contatos. Recomenda-se a implementação de medidas de distanciamento social e de políticas de proteção social para garantir a sustentabilidade dessas medidas. Para o controle da COVID-19 no Brasil, é imprescindível que essas medidas estejam aliadas ao fortalecimento do sistema de vigilância nos três níveis do SUS, que inclui a avaliação e uso de indicadores adicionais para monitorar a evolução da pandemia e o efeito das medidas de controle, a ampliação da capacidade de testagem, e divulgação ampla e transparente das notificações e de testagem desagregadas.
Objectives. We evaluated the effects of the Family Health Program (FHP), a strategy for reorganization of primary health care at a nationwide level in Brazil, on infant mortality at a municipality level. Methods. We collected data on FHP coverage and infant mortality rates for 771 of 5561 Brazilian municipalities from 1996 to 2004. We performed a multivariable regression analysis for panel data with a negative binomial response by using fixed-effects models that controlled for demographic, social, and economic variables. Results. We observed a statistically significant negative association between FHP coverage and infant mortality rate. After we controlled for potential confounders, the reduction in the infant mortality rate was 13.0%, 16.0%, and 22.0%, respectively for the 3 levels of FHP coverage. The effect of the FHP was greater in municipalities with a higher infant mortality rate and lower human development index at the beginning of the study period. Conclusions. The FHP had an important effect on reducing the infant mortality rate in Brazilian municipalities from 1996 to 2004. The FHP may also contribute toward reducing health inequalities.
Objectives To evaluate the impact of Brazil's recently implemented Family Health Program (FHP), the largest primary health care programme in the world, on heart and cerebrovascular disease mortality across Brazil from 2000 to 2009.Design Ecological longitudinal design, evaluating the impact of FHP using negative binomial regression models for panel data with fixed effects specifications.Setting Nationwide analysis of data from Brazilian municipalities covering the period from 2000 to 2009.Data sources 1622 Brazilian municipalities with vital statistics of adequate quality.
Main outcome measuresThe annual FHP coverage and the average FHP coverage in previous years were used as main independent variables and classified as none (0%), incipient (<30%), intermediate (30-69%), or consolidated (≥70%). Age standardised mortality rates from causes in the group of cerebrovascular (ICD-10 codes I60-69), ischaemic (ICD-10 I20-25), and other forms of heart diseases (ICD-10 I30-52), which were included in the national list of ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, were calculated for each municipality for each year. They accounted for 40% of all deaths from these groups during the study period.Results FHP coverage was negatively associated with mortality rates from cerebrovascular and heart diseases (ambulatory care-sensitive conditions) in both unadjusted and adjusted models for demographic, social, and economic confounders. The FHP had no effect on the mortality rate for accidents, used as a control. The rate ratio for the effect of consolidated annual FHP coverage on cerebrovascular disease mortality and on heart disease mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.86) and 0.79 (0.75 to 0.80) respectively, reaching the value of 0.69 (0.66 to 0.73) and 0.64 (0.59 to 0.68) when the coverage was consolidated during all the previous eight years. Moreover, FHP coverage increased the number of health education activities, domiciliary visits, and medical consultations and reduced hospitalisation rates for cerebrovascular and heart disease. Several complementary analyses showed quantitatively similar results.
ConclusionsComprehensive and community based primary health care programmes, such as the FHP in Brazil, acting through cardiovascular disease prevention, care, and follow-up can contribute to decreased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in a developing country such as Brazil.
In 1994Brazil launched what has since become the world's largest community-based primary health care program. Under the Family Health Program, teams consisting of at least one physician, one nurse, a medical assistant, and four to six trained community health agents deliver most of their services at community-based clinics. They also make regular home visits and conduct neighborhood health promotion activities. This study finds that during 1999-2007, hospitalizations in Brazil for ambulatory care-sensitive chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and asthma, fell at a rate that was statistically significant and almost twice the rate of decline in hospitalizations for all other causes. In municipalities with high Family Health Program enrollment, chronic disease hospitalization rates were 13 percent lower than in municipalities with low enrollment, when other factors were held constant. These results suggest that the Family Health Program has improved health system performance in Brazil by reducing the number of potentially avoidable hospitalizations.
BackgroundSocial determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004–2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI = 0.74–0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72–95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02–1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI = 1.08–1.17).ConclusionsAt the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence.
The FHP, one of the largest comprehensive primary health care programs in the world, was effective in reducing overall mortality of children younger than 5, and particularly deaths related to diarrheal diseases and lower respiratory tract infections.
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