Broccoli inflorescences have been recognized as components of healthy diets on the basis of their high content of fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, and glucosinolates/isothiocyanates. Broccoli sprouts have been recently shown to have high levels of glucoraphanin (4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate), the precursor of the chemoprotective isothiocyanate, sulforaphane. This study evaluated the effects of temperature and developmental stage on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts. Seedlings cultivated using a 30/15 degrees C (day/night) temperature regime had significantly higher glucosinolate levels (measured at six consecutive days postemergence) than did sprouts cultivated at lower temperatures (22/15 and 18/12 degrees C; p < 0.001). Both higher (33.1 degrees C) and lower (11.3 degrees C) constant temperatures induced higher glucosinolate levels in sprouts grown to a uniform size. Glucosinolate levels were highest in cotyledons and lowest in roots of sprouts dissected both early and late in the 11 day developmental span investigated. Nongerminated seeds have the highest glucosinolate levels and concordantly greater induction of mammalian phase 2 detoxication enzymes. Levels decline as sprouts germinate and develop, with consistently higher glucosinolate content in younger developmental stages, independent of the temperature regime. Temperature stress or its associated developmental anomalies induce higher glucosinolate levels, specific elevations in glucoraphanin content, and parallel induction of phase 2 chemoprotective enzymes.
Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.
Health literacy, a more complex concept than knowledge, is a required capacity to obtain, understand, integrate and act on health information , in order to enhance individual and community health, which is defined by different levels, according to the autonomy and personal capacitation in decision making . Medium levels of Health literacy in an adolescent population were found in a study conducted in 2013/2014, being higher in sexual and reproductive health and lower in substance use. It was also noticed that the higher levels of health literacy were in the area adolescents refer to have receipt more health information. The health literacy competence with higher scores was communication skills, and the lower scores were in the capacity to analyze factors that influence health. Higher levels were also found in younger teenagers, but in a higher school level, confirming the importance of health education in these age and development stage. Adolescents seek more information in health professionals and parents, being friends more valued as a source information in older adolescents, which enhance the importance of peer education mainly in older adolescents . As a set of competences based on knowledge, health literacy should be developed through education interventions, encompassing the cultural and social context of individuals, since the society, culture and education system where the individual is inserted can define the way the development and enforcement of the health literacy competences . The valued sources of information should be taken into account, as well as needs of information in some topics referred by adolescents in an efficient health education. Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness which has a profound effect on the health and well-being related with the well-known nature of psychotic symptoms. The exercise has the potential to improve the life of people with schizophrenia improving physical health and alleviating psychiatric symptoms. However, most people with schizophrenia remains sedentary and lack of access to exercise programs are barriers to achieve health benefits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise on I) the type of intervention in mental health, II) in salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol and serum levels of S100B and BDNF, and on III) the quality of life and selfperception of the physical domain of people with schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 31 females in long-term institutions in the Casa de Saúde Rainha Santa Isabel, with age between 25 and 63, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Physical fitness was assessed by the six-minute walk distance test (6MWD). Biological variables were determined by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Psychological variables were assessed using SF-36, PSPP-SCV, RSES and SWLS tests. Walking exercise has a positive impact on physical fitness (6MWD -p = 0.001) and physical components of the psychological test...
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Marathon) sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, particularly 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), the precursor of the chemoprotective isothiocyanate, sulforaphane. Sulfur and nitrogen fertilization have been shown to influence the pattern and levels of glucosinolates in mature broccoli, but little information is available on the fertilization of sprouts, a transient stage of broccoli growth, which have been recommended for salads. Therefore, an experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of N and S fertilization on the glucosinolate content of the aerial part and roots of broccoli sprouts. Nitrogen was tested at 0, 45.5, 91.0 mg L −1 and sulfur at 0, 14.6 and 29.2 mg L −1 . The results showed that total glucosinolates in the aerial part were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in the roots. The major glucosinolates in the aerial part were 4-methylsulfinylbutyl and 3-methylsulfinylpropyl whereas in the roots they were 2-phenylethyl and 4-methylthiobutyl. Fertilization of broccoli sprouts had a significant (P < 0.001) detrimental effect on the levels of aliphatic glucosinolates whereas the opposite was noted for indole and aromatic glucosinolates, for some of the fertilization combinations tested. Overall, the results indicate that broccoli sprouts do not benefit from fertilization.
BackgroundAsthma is a frequent chronic respiratory disease in both children and adults. However, few data on asthma prevalence are available in Portugal. The Portuguese National Asthma Survey is the first nationwide study that uses standardized methods. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in the Portuguese population and to assess the association between ‘Current asthma’ and comorbidities such as upper airways disease.MethodsA cross-sectional, population-based, telephone interview survey including all municipalities of Portugal was undertaken. Participants were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire based on the Portuguese version of the GA2LEN survey. ‘Current asthma’ was defined as self-reported lifetime asthma and at least one of 3 symptoms in the last 12 months: wheezing, waking with breathlessness or having an asthma attack.ResultsData were obtained for 6 003 respondents, with mean age of 38.9 (95%CI 38.2-39.6) years and 57.3% females. In the Portuguese population, the prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ was 6.8% (95%CI 6.0-7.7) and of ‘Lifetime asthma’ was 10.5% (95%CI 9.5-11.6) Using GA2LEN definition for asthma, our prevalence estimate was 7.8% (95%CI 7.0-8.8). Rhinitis had a strong association with asthma (Adjusted OR 3.87, 95%CI 2.90-5.18) and the association between upper airway diseases and asthma was stronger in patients with both rhinitis and sinusitis (Adjusted OR 13.93, 95%CI 6.60-29.44).ConclusionsCurrent asthma affects 695 000 Portuguese, with a prevalence of 6.8%. People who reported both rhinitis and sinusitis had the highest risk of having asthma.
The Brassicaceae rocket species Eruca sativa L. (salad rocket) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. (wild rocket) are consumed throughout the world in salads, predominantly the leaves but also the flowers and more recently the sprouts (seedlings). Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates and flavonoids in plants derived from commercial seed of these species has previously been done, but no studies have been conducted to determine how geographical origin affects glucosinolate composition in rocket species. Seeds from wild E. sativa L. and D. tenuifolia L. from diverse regions of the world were obtained from gene banks and grown under controlled conditions. Sprouts were harvested when they would normally be harvested for consumption, and glucosinolates were extracted and profiled in these accessions. All of the sprouts from Italian E. sativa L. had consistently high total glucosinolate content, with only a few exceptions, and also the highest percentage contents of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. In contrast, sprouts produced from Central and Eastern European seeds had a much higher percentage of 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. With a single exception, Tunisia, all sprouts produced from North African seeds had very high 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate contents. The single sample from China had a high total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate profile that was very similar to the accessions from Uzbekistan and Pakistan. All of the D. tenuifolia L. sprouts had consistently high total glucosinolate contents, and a high percentage of this was 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. This glucosinolate variation in levels and profiles of the rockets can be used for genetic studies, selected breeding, and human intervention studies.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant properties of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Brassicaceae) produced under organic production system. Fresh baby-leaf watercress samples were collected from local organic farms. High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) were used to assess the phytochemical composition, and spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the antioxidant capacity. Two major classes of healthier secondary plant metabolites were identified: phenolics and glucosinolates. The major phenolics determined were chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, and isorhamnetin. The glucosinolates were composed exclusively of gluconasturtiin, the precursor of the anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial compound 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. The extracts of organic young baby-leaf watercress presented high antioxidant capacity and this property was highly related with caffeic acid, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin, and glucosnastrutiin. The results achieved showed that baby-leaf watercress can provide high contents of antioxidant compounds at levels even superior to similar adult plant material.Keywords: watercress; baby-leaf samples; organic production; bioactive compounds; phenolic acids; flavonoids; quercetin-3-O-rutinoside; antioxidant activity El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición fitoquímica y propiedades antioxidantes de berros (Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Brassicaceae) producidos bajo el sistema de producción ecológico. Muestras frescas de hojas tiernas de berros se recolectaron en granjas ecológicas locales. HPLC-DAD y HPLC-MS fueron utilizados para evaluar la composición fitoquímica y métodos espectrofotométricos se utilizaron para evaluar la capacidad antioxidante. Se identificaron dos clases principales de metabolitos secundarios saludables de las plantas, compuestos fenólicos y glucosinolatos. Los principales compuestos fenólicos determinadas fueron: ácido clorogénico, quercetina-3-O-rutinósido, ácido dicafeoil tartárico y isoramnetina. Los glucosinolatos fueron compuestas exclusivamente por gluconasturtina, el precursor del compuesto anti-cancerígenos y antimicrobiana isotiocianato de 2-feniletilo. Los extractos de brotes jóvenes de berros ecológicos presentaron una alta capacidad antioxidante y esta propiedad fue muy relacionadas con el ácido cafeico, la quercetina-3-Orutinósido, isorhamnetina y glucosnastrutiina. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que los brotes de berro puede proporcionar un alto contenido de compuestos antioxidantes a niveles aún superiores del material similar de la planta adulta. Palabras
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