This study is a survey and classification of the state-of-the-art in behavioural biometrics which is based on skills, style, preference, knowledge, motor-skills or strategy used by people while accomplishing different everyday tasks such as driving an automobile, talking on the phone or using a computer. The authors examine current research in the field and analyse the types of features used to describe different types of behaviour. After comparing accuracy rates for verification of users using different behavioural biometric approaches, researchers address privacy issues which arise or might arise in the future with the use of behavioural biometrics.
Machine ethics and robot rights are quickly becoming hot topics in artificial intelligence and robotics communities. We will argue that attempts to attribute moral agency and assign rights to all intelligent machines are misguided, whether applied to infrahuman or superhuman AIs, as are proposals to limit the negative effects of AIs by constraining their behavior. As an alternative, we propose a new science of safety engineering for intelligent artificial agents based on maximizing for what humans value. In particular, we challenge the scientific community to develop intelligent systems that have human-friendly values that they provably retain, even under recursive self-improvement.
Purpose: This paper formalizes long-term trajectories of human civilization as a scientific and ethical field of study. The long-term trajectory of human civilization can be defined as the path that human civilization takes during the entire future time period in which human civilization could continue to exist. Approach: We focus on four types of trajectories: status quo trajectories, in which human civilization persists in a state broadly similar to its current state into the distant future; catastrophe trajectories, in which one or more events cause significant harm to human civilization; technological transformation trajectories, in which radical technological breakthroughs put human civilization on a fundamentally different course; and astronomical trajectories, in which human civilization expands beyond its home planet and into the accessible portions of the cosmos. Findings: Status quo trajectories appear unlikely to persist into the distant future, especially in light of long-term astronomical processes. Several catastrophe, technological transformation, and astronomical trajectories appear possible. Value: Some current actions may be able to affect the long-term trajectory. Whether these actions should be pursued depends on a mix of empirical and ethical factors. For some ethical frameworks, these actions may be especially important to pursue.
Abstract. The paper contributes to the development of the theory of AICompleteness by formalizing the notion of AI-Complete and AI-Hard problems. The intended goal is to provide a classification of problems in the field of General Artificial Intelligence. We prove Turing Test to be an instance of an AI-Complete problem and further show certain AI problems to be AI-Complete or AI-Hard via polynomial time reductions. Finally, the paper suggests some directions for future work on the theory of AI-Completeness.
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