BackgroundThe adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil.MethodsA cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH.ResultsThe BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate in organized physical activity and who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for simultaneous BRFCH.ConclusionsWe found a high prevalence of BRFCH among adolescents, both isolated and simultaneously. The correlates of the presence of BRFCH can contribute to healthy policies among Brazilian adolescents, mainly focusing on high-risk subgroups for a health risk behavior.
BackgroundIn adults, there is a substantial body of evidence that physical inactivity or low cardiorespiratory fitness levels are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Although this association has been studied extensively in adults, little is known regarding this association in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness levels with metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.MethodsA random sample of 223 girls (mean age, 14.4 ± 1.6 years) and 233 boys (mean age, 14.6 ± 1.6 years) was selected for the study. The level of physical activity was determined by the Bouchard three-day physical activity record. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the Leger 20-meter shuttle run test. The metabolic syndrome components assessed included waist circumference, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose levels. Independent Student t-tests were used to assess gender differences. The associations between physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender.ResultsA high prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in inactive adolescents (males, 11.4%; females, 7.2%) and adolescents with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels (males, 13.9%; females, 8.6%). A significant relationship existed between metabolic syndrome and low cardiorespiratory fitness (OR, 3.0 [1.13-7.94]).ConclusionThe prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among adolescents who are inactive and those with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Prevention strategies for metabolic syndrome should concentrate on enhancing fitness levels early in life.
Objectives: to characterize the nutritional status a n d d i e t a r y Organization. Dietary intake was calculated using the S u r v e y o f C o n s u m e r F o o d F re q u e n c y. A n a l y s i s w a s carried out using descriptive and frequency analysis, and Student's t test with p<0.05. R e s u l t s : m o s t i n d i v i d u a l s p re s e n t e d a n o r m a l n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s ( 8 4 % b e i n g e u t ro p h i c , 1 2 % o v e rw e i g h t / o b e s e a n d 4 % u n d e r w e i g h t ) . T h e d i e t w a s
Objective:To identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with abdominal obesity (AO) and high body fat percentage (high BF%) in adolescents from the city of Curitiba-PR. Methods:The sample consisted of 1,732 adolescents, aged 11 to 19 years, of both genders. The triceps and calf skinfolds were measured for the calculation of BF%, as well as the waist circumference. A questionnaire was completed by adolescents with the following type of residence, socioeconomic status, time spent watching TV on weekdays and weekends, and daily energy expenditure. Logistic regression was used to measure the association of sociodemographic and behavioral variables with abdominal obesity and high BF%. Results:Female were more likely to have high BF% (OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 2.32-3.33), but were less likely to have abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44-0.78). Older individuals (1619 have high BF% (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02-1.83). The older age groups (13-15 years and 16-19 years) had an inverse association with abdominal obesity. Regarding daily energy expenditure, the less active individuals were more likely to present high BF% (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) and obesity (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.09-1.80). Conclusions:Interventions to increase physical activity levels in young people should be designed in order to combat excess body fat should designed to combat excess adiposity.
Artículo recibido el 10/03/09; revisado recibido el 16/06/09; aceptado el 24/09/09. ResumenFundamento: La aterosclerosis es la enfermedad coronaria que afecta con mayor frecuencia a la población adulta brasilera. Aún cuando se trata de una enfermedad predominantemente de adultos, los factores de riesgo asociados pueden surgir en individuos jóvenes.Objetivo: Verificar la asociación del nivel de actividad física (NAF) y el consumo de lípidos con los factores de riesgo para aterosclerosis en adolescentes.Métodos: Fueron evaluados 260 niños y 237 niñas con edades entre 10 y 18 años. El nivel de actividad física fue estimado a través del recordatorio propuesto por Bouchard et al. El consumo de lípidos fue evaluado mediante una encuesta alimentaria desarrollada por Sichieri y Everhart. La presión arterial se midió utilizando un esfigmomanómetro de columna de mercurio. El colesterol total, el HDL-C y los triglicéridos fueron determinados por el método enzimático-colorimétrico. El LDL-C se calculó mediante la fórmula de Friedewald. En el análisis estadístico, se empleó la regresión logística, con nivel de significancia estipulado en p < 0,05.Resultados: En cuanto al NAF, el 17,3% de los niños y el 22,6% de las niñas fueron clasificados como sedentarios. En los hábitos alimentarios, el 54% y el 48,6% de los niños y niñas, respectivamente, presentaron consumo de lípidos por encima de las recomendaciones. Niños con niveles elevados de colesterol total y de LDL-C tuvieron mayor razón de chances de ser sedentarios que sus pares más activos. La aparición de niveles elevados de LDL-C estuvo asociada al consumo excesivo de grasa saturada en ambos sexos. a una menor predisposición a los factores de riesgo para enfermedades cardiovasculares en adultos 2,4 . Sin embargo, no todos estos resultados hallados fueron confirmados en poblaciones pediátricas  . Estudios de prevalencia recientes han demostrado que la exposición a los factores de riesgo para aterosclerosis no se restringe a la población adulta 8,9 , contrariando, de esta forma, la creencia generalizada de que niños y adolescentes están al margen de este tipo de riesgo para la salud. ConclusiónCon datos del Bogalusa Heart Study, Berenson et al 10 demostraron la presencia de factores de riesgo, como el aumento del índice de masa corporal, presión arterial, LDL-C y triglicéridos y relataron que estos aumentos están relacionados a lesiones ateroscleróticas, aún en individuos jóvenes.Salvo en trastornos congénitos, en los que los cambios de conducta pueden no ser suficientes para la normalización metabólica de los portadores, algunos factores de riesgo son receptivos a cambios comportamentales 11 . Así, estos cambios IntroducciónLa aterosclerosis es la enfermedad coronaria que afecta con mayor frecuencia a la población adulta brasilera, y la hipertensión arterial y las dislipidemias son los principales factores de riesgo para su desarrollo 1 . Estudios publicados refieren que, independientemente del origen étnico, individuos que consumen grandes cantidades de grasas, pr...
Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum 2009, 11(3):286-291Resumo -Embora diversos autores afirmem que a medida da circunferência da cintura (CC) é um indicador de fatores de risco cardiovascular mais confiável se comparado ao índice de massa corporal (IMC) e outros indicadores de adiposidade, estes resultados ainda não são conclusivos para população exclusivamente pediátrica. O Objetivo do presente estudo foi relacionar a CC e IMC com os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por 108 rapazes e 133 moças (12 a 16 anos). A CC e o IMC foram mensurados seguindo procedimentos antropométricos usuais. Os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares analisados foram a pressão arterial, colesterol total, LDL-c, HDL-c e triglicérides. Para as análises estatísticas, utilizaram-se estatística descritiva, testes de qui-quadrado e regressão logística, com p<0,05. Os resultados sugerem que as moças com valores aumentados de IMC, apresentaram maior razão de chances de ter níveis indesejáveis de pressão arterial (OR:4,29; IC95%:1,66-14,58). Em relação à CC, as moças com valores aumentados apresentaram maior razão de chances de apresentar pressão arterial elevada (OR:4,12;IC95%:1,27-13,35) e colesterol total indesejável (OR:3,6;IC95%:1,1-11,76). Apesar das poucas relações encontradas, principalmente para os rapazes, estes indicadores antropométricos podem ser úteis para a identificação e triagem de indivíduos com valores aumentados, possibilitando uma intervenção no sentido de incorporação de hábitos alimentares e de atividade física saudáveis, principalmente, em indivíduos jovens. Palavras-chave: Dislipidemias; Hipertensão arterial, Circunferência da cintura; IMC. (OR: 4.29;. The odds ratio of elevated blood pressure (OR: 4.12; Abstract -Although waist circumference (WC) has been suggested to be a more reliable cardiovascular risk factor than body mass index (BMI) and other indicators of adiposity
BackgroundArterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population.ObjectiveTo determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents.MethodsA random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure.ResultsThe high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure.ConclusionPositive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.
SummaryBackground: Physical inactivity in adolescence is related to body fat accumulation, which apparently can increase the probability of onset and development of metabolic changes.
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