Flavonoids are a family of polyphenolic compounds which are widespread in nature (vegetables) and are consumed as part of the human diet in significant amounts. There are other types of polyphenols, including, for example, tannins and resveratrol. Flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds have significant antiinflammatory activity, among others. This short review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds on inflammation, with a focus on structural requirements, the mechanisms involved, and pharmacokinetic considerations. Different molecular (cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase) and cellular targets (macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, endothelium) have been identified. In addition, many flavonoids display significant antioxidant/radical scavenging properties. There is substantial structural variation in these compounds, which is bound to have an impact on their biological profile, and specifically on their effects on inflammatory conditions. However, in general terms there is substantial consistency in the effects of these compounds despite considerable structural variations. The mechanisms have been studied mainly in myeloid cells, where the predominant effect is an inhibition of NF-κB signaling and the downregulation of the expression of proinflammatory markers. At present there is a gap in knowledge of in vitro and in vivo effects, although the pharmacokinetics of flavonoids has advanced considerably in the last decade. Many flavonoids have been studied for their intestinal antiinflammatory activity which is only logical, since the gastrointestinal tract is naturally exposed to them. However, their potential therapeutic application in inflammation is not restricted to this organ and extends to other sites and conditions, including arthritis, asthma, encephalomyelitis, and atherosclerosis, among others.
ObjectiveGut homing of lymphocytes via adhesion molecules has recently emerged as new target for therapy in IBDs. We aimed to analyse the in vivo homing of effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells to the inflamed gut via α4β7 and G protein receptor GPR15.DesignWe assessed the expression of homing receptors on T cells in peripheral blood and inflamed mucosa. We studied the migration pattern and homing of Teff and Treg cells to the inflamed gut using intravital confocal microscopy and FACS in a humanised mouse model in dextran sodium sulfate-treated NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid-Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ) mice.ResultsExpression of GPR15 and α4β7 was significantly increased on Treg rather than Teff cells in peripheral blood of patients with UC as compared with Crohn’s disease and controls. In vivo analysis in a humanised mouse model showed augmented gut homing of UC Treg cells as compared with controls. Moreover, suppression of UC (but not control) Teff and Treg cell homing was noted upon treatment with the α4β7 antibody vedolizumab. In contrast, siRNA blockade of GPR15 had only effects on homing of Teff cells but did not affect Treg homing in UC. Clinical vedolizumab treatment was associated with marked expansion of UC Treg cells in peripheral blood.Conclusionsα4β7 rather than GPR15 is crucial for increased colonic homing of UC Treg cells in vivo, while both receptors control UC Teff cell homing. Vedolizumab treatment impairs homing of UC Treg cells leading to their accumulation in peripheral blood with subsequent suppression of systemic Teff cell expansion.
AEβ7 is of key relevance for gut trafficking of IBD CD8 T cells and CD4 Th9 cells in vivo and mainly retention might account for this effect. These findings indicate that blockade of αEβ7 in addition to α4β7 may be particularly effective in intestinal disorders with expansion of CD8 and Th9 cells such as IBD.
Oxidative stress causes a distinct increase in enterocyte AP activity together with cell toxicity via changes in the glycosylation of the enzyme that correspond to a shift in isotype within the tissue-nonspecific paradigm. We speculate that this may have physiological implication for gut defense.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.