Fiber-optic bronchoscopy showed a diagnostic accuracy rate of 100 % but played a poor therapeutic role with a case resolution of 10.7 %. Rigid bronchoscopy was the main technique, permitting the removal of the tracheobronchial foreign body in 97.2 % of patients.
The use of VATS at first spontaneous pneumothorax is justified in the interest of both patients and health administrations as demonstrated by the number of recurrences in patients in the first group and economy savings resulting from use of VATS.
Our study shows that 18F-FDG PET/CT improves the identification and characterisation of potentially malignant pulmonary nodules with a diameter < 1 cm. This technique could be a valid alternative to a surgical approach, currently the main method to investigate indeterminate lung nodules.
Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is the most advanced evolution of the minimally invasive technique, which allows often the possibility to include patients in enhanced recovery programs in order to optimize the therapeutic pathway, shorten the length of stay and reduce hospital costs. Non-intubated VATS procedures allow the performance of surgeries with minimal sedation without general anesthesia, maintaining throughout the operation spontaneous breathing. The principle is to create an iatrogenic spontaneous pneumothorax, which can provide a good lung isolation without the need of a double lumen tube. A survey between the members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgery (ESTS) showed that non-intubated VATS procedures are already performed by a large number of ESTS members for minor procedures. With the publication of new data and the spreading of uniportal VATS in many centers worldwide in the last decades, the application of the non-intubated technique in major procedure like anatomic resections is expected to grow. This technique can potentially be beneficial for high-risk patients but also could be used for the routine procedures as well, but more data are needed to establish the real benefit for these groups of patients.
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