An online survey was conducted to identify factors associated with financial insecurity, food insecurity and poor quality of daily lives of adults in Nigeria during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations between the outcome (experience of financial loss, changes in food intake and impact of the pandemic on daily lives) and the explanatory (age, sex, education level, anxiety, depression, HIV status) variables were determined using logistic regression analysis. Of the 4439 respondents, 2487 (56.0%) were financially insecure, 907 (20.4%) decreased food intake and 4029 (90.8%) had their daily life negatively impacted. Males (AOR:0.84), people who felt depressed (AOR:0.62) and people living with HIV -PLHIV- (AOR:0.70) had significantly lower odds of financial insecurity. Older respondents (AOR:1.01) had significantly higher odds of financial insecurity. Those depressed (AOR:0.62) and PLHIV (AOR:0.55) had significantly lower odds of reporting decreased food intake. Respondents who felt anxious (AOR:0.07), depressed (AOR: 0.48) and who were PLHIV (AOR:0.68) had significantly lower odds of reporting a negative impact of the pandemic on their daily lives. We concluded the study findings may reflect a complex relationship between financial insecurity, food insecurity, poor quality of life, mental health, and socioeconomic status of adults living in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic.
BackgroundMultiple facets of the pandemic can be a source of fear, depression, anxiety and can cause changes in sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to identify health profiles and the COVID-19 pandemic related factors associated with fear, depression, anxiety and changes in sleep pattern in adults in Nigeria.MethodsThe data for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and well-ness from a convenience sample of adults 18 years and above resident in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Study participants were asked to complete an anonymous, closed-ended online questionnaire that solicited information on sociodemographic profile, health profiles (high, moderate and low COVID-19 infection risk profile) including HIV status, COVID-19 status, and self-reported experiences of fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns.ResultsIn total, 4,439 participants with mean age of 38.3 (±11.6) years responded to the survey. Factors associated with higher odds of having COVID-19 related fear were health risk (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 3.88; 95% CI: 3.22–4.69); having COVID-19 symptoms but not tested (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.30–1.99); having a friend who tested positive to COVID-19 (AOR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07–1.53) and knowing someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.24–1.65). The odds of feeling anxious was significantly higher for those with moderate or low health risk profile (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.32–2.04); had a friend who tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.08–1.68) or knew someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.28–1.84). The odds of feeling depressed was significantly higher for those with health risk profile (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.89–3.28); and respondents who had COVID-19 symptoms but had not taken a test (AOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.02–1.94). Factors associated with higher odds of having sleep pattern changes were having moderate and low health risk profiles (p < 0.05).ConclusionThe study findings suggest that the pandemic may cause fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns differently for people with different health profile, HIV status and COVID-19 status.
Background Nigeria is a country with high risk for traumatic incidences, now aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to identify differences in COVID-19 related post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among people living and not living with HIV; to assess whether PTSS were associated with COVID-19 pandemic-related anger, loneliness, social isolation, and social support; and to determine the association between PTSS and use of COVID-19 prevention strategies. Methods The data of the 3761 respondents for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and wellness from a convenience sample of adults, 18 years and above, in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Information was collected on the study’s dependent variable (PTSS), independent variables (self-reported COVID-19, HIV status, use of COVID-19 prevention strategies, perception of social isolation, access to emotional support, feelings of anger and loneliness), and potential confounder (age, sex at birth, employment status). A binary logistic regression model tested the associations between independent and dependent variables. Results Nearly half (47.5%) of the respondents had PTSS. People who had symptoms but were not tested (AOR = 2.20), felt socially isolated (AOR = 1.16), angry (AOR = 2.64), or lonely (AOR = 2.19) had significantly greater odds of reporting PTSS (p < 0.001). People living with HIV (AOR = 0.39), those who wore masks (AOR = 0.62) and those who had emotional support (AOR = 0.63), had lower odds of reporting PTSS (p < .05). Conclusion The present study identified some multifaceted relationships between post-traumatic stress, HIV status, facemask use, anger, loneliness, social isolation, and access to emotional support during this protracted COVID-19 pandemic. These findings have implications for the future health of those affected, particularly for individuals living in Nigeria. Public health education should be incorporated in programs targeting prevention and prompt diagnosis and treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder at the community level.
Objective Pain treatment is an essential component of care for elderly patients with advanced dementia. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze the different scales used for pain assessment in elderly persons diagnosed with dementia, in the literature available at the Latin American level. Method A systematic review was performed on the existing scales for pain assessment in elderly people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Results 226 articles were retrieved from the PUBMED, BIREME, and Scielo databases, of which a total of 10 articles entered the systematic review. The instruments identified in these publications were PAINAD, Abbey, McGill, and PACSLAC, while the Colored Pain Scale, Faces Pain Scale, and VAS scales were used as the silver standard. In Spanish, the Abbey scale, and in Portuguese, the PACSLAC scale showed the best reliability and validity coefficients. Significance of results It is concluded that there are only two appropriate scales for the assessment of pain in people with dementia in the region of interest of this study. It is recommended to generate more evidence for a more accurate assessment of pain in people with dementia.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among adults seeking care in primary healthcare centers in Cordoba city, Argentina. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a random sample of adults 18-69 years of age seeking care for general health problems in public (i.e., government-funded) primary healthcare centers in Cordoba city, Argentina in 2010-2011. Mood and anxiety disorders were assessed in the participants' lifetime, and in the last 12 months and 30 days using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0, and defined following the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision. Results: Overall, 1,067 participants were included in the current analysis [mean age 35.6 (SD 13.2) years, 83.7% female]. The lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalence of any mood or anxiety disorder was 40.4% [95% confidence interval (95%CI) 37.4-43.4%], 20.1% (17.8-22.7%) and 7.8% (6.2-9.6%), respectively. The prevalence of anxiety disorders was higher compared to mood disorders when assessed in the participants' lifetime [29.7% (95%CI 27.0-32.5%) versus 19.3% (17.0-21.8%)], and in the last 12 months [14.9% (12.8-17.2%) versus 8.7% (7.1-10.6%)] and 30 days [5.8% (4.5-7.4%) versus 2.3% (1.5-3.4%)]. Age and marital status-adjusted odds ratios for any mood or anxiety disorder in the participants' lifetime and in the last 12 months and 30 days comparing women versus men were 1.19 (95%CI 0.85-1.67), 1.70 (1.07-2.69), and 2.26 (1.02-5.00), respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders is high among adults seeking care in primary healthcare centers in Cordoba city, particularly among women. Integration of primary and mental health services is warranted.
Objective:To describe social participation strategies and resilience in the people affected by the 2017 earthquakes in Mexico.Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1504 participants from Mexico City, State of Mexico, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Puebla, and Morelos in November and December 2017. A nonprobabilistic convenience sampling method was used to recruit voluntary participants who met the inclusion criteria: age 18 or over and residents in damaged states at the time of the earthquakes. Postearthquake social participation strategies were assessed with the formats used in the postearthquake Chilean survey in 2010. The Spanish-validated version of the resilience scale RS-14 was applied for measuring resilience in the Mexican population.Results:The most frequent social participation strategies were related to emotional support and aid supplying water, food, and clothing. The highest resilience was observed in the state of Oaxaca and in Mexico City. Men, people age 40 or over, and people who defined themselves as indigenous were the most resilient.Conclusions:Factors related to resilience were male gender, age over 40, did not participate in activities of help to the community, no household damage, and belonging to an indigenous community.
The aim of the study was to assess the mental health burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in healthcare workers in four Latin American countries in 2020. An online survey was carried out with 1721 participants from Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Mexico in 2020. A non-probabilistic convenience sampling method was used to recruit voluntary participants. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were assessed with the SPRINT-E scale, Perceived Discrimination was assessed with a Spanish version of the scale developed by Molero, and anxiety toward death was assessed with the Spanish version of the Templer scale. All instruments were assessed for internal consistency. The overall frequency of post-traumatic stress symptoms was 23.9%. The frequency by countries was 26.4% in Argentina, 29.8% in Chile, 19.9 in Colombia, and 23.8% in Mexico. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with individual subtle discrimination, anxiety toward the death of the elderly, lack of Personal Protective Equipment, and exposition to the death. The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a mental health burden on health workers in the countries included in the study, not only due to the implications of the disease in the face of exposure to death, but also due to institutional conditions and in which they carry out their work.
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