A 60-item paper-and-pencil inventory showed a 98% "hit-rate" in distinguishing between honest and simulated malingering protocols produced by 29 nonclinical subjects who took the inventory in both the honest and faked conditions. When instructed to take the Wildman Symptom Cheklist "as if applying for some kind of disability compensation," subjects endorsed a significantly higher number of the self-statements which appear clinically unbelievable. Independent replication is now required.
Powers ( 193 1 ) and Belanger ( 1944 ) reported negative correlations between measures of intelligence and measures of superstitiousness in college students, but neither of the correlations was statistically significant. The present report investigated the relationship between an original index of superstitiousness and a widely used test of intelligence.Forty-nine seniors in two classes of a public high school in Georgia, whose ages ranged from 17 to 19 yr., anonymously cook an original 57-item superstitiousness questionnaire during regular class hours. This questionnaire' contained commonly believed statements which have no basis in scientific fact, as: June marriages are lucky; ic is bad luck for a black cat to cross your path; carrying a horse chestnut or buckeye will bring you good luck. Ss were asked to indicate either no, slight, moderate, or strong agreement with each statement by placing a check in the appropriate column with respect to statements they had heard before and an "X" in the appropriate column in regard to statements with which they were unfamiliar. One point was scored for indicating slight agreement with a familiar statement, two points were scored for moderate agreement, and three points for strong agreement. An extra point was scored each time S indicated any degree of agreement with a stacement he was being exposed to for the first time. Thus, the questionnaire had a possible range of scores from 0 to 228, with higher scores representing greater agreement with superstitious statements.On a subsequent date, all Ss were given the Otis Quick-scoring Mental Ability Test, Gamma Test; Form C. Twenty-four Ss had IQs on the Otis between 84 and 111. These Ss were included in the "Average IQ Group." Twenty-five Ss with IQs of 115 and above were placed in the "Above Average IQ Group." The members of the Average IQ Group had a mean score on the superstitiousness questionnaire of 29.49 (SD = 33.64, Range = & I l l ) , and the Above Average IQ Group obtained a mean score of 12.28 (SD = 19.98, Range = 1-102).A t test applied to the difference between these two means yielded a ratio of 2.16 ( P = .05). These data suggest that high school students of higher intelligence are less likely to agree with erroneous beliefs, superstitions, than are those who make lower scores on IQ tests. However, the results still leave open the question of whether intelligence per se directly influences a person's level of supersticiousness or whether intelligence appears to have this effect through influencing the social group to which an individual belongs which, in turn, partially determines the number of erroneous statements believed.
Central State Hospilal (Milledgeville, Ga.) 2. TALLENT, N. and REISS, W. J. Multidisciplinary views on the preparation of written clinical psychological reports: I. Spontaneous suggestions for content. J . elin. Psychol., 1959,16, 218-221. 3. TALLENT, N. and REISS, W. J. Multidisciplinary views on the preparation of written clinical psychological reports: 11. Acceptability of certain common content variables and styles of expression.
In Study 1, 55 young women responded that they preferred men with hairy chests and circumcised penises. The chest was the male body part reported to be most “sexually stimulating” to females. The busts were the female body part most “sexually stimulating” to males ( n = 34). In Study 2, men ( n = 35) preferred larger busts than women typically possess on the average, but the women ( n = 48) tended to overestimate the bust size most preferred by males. The ratings of bust-revealing clothing showed the males were more desirous of actually seeing the naked bust than females appear to realize.
existence of a relatively small number of modal types (as defined by the major CPI factors) suggests that code type approaches may be practicable with the CPI. Nontest characteristics of such groups could be noted and interpretative aids for the CPI prepared. Of course, the results of this study should be evaluated within the context of the sample involved. It remains to be seen whether other samples (psychiatric patients, groups that have professed adjustment problems, etc.) exhibit the same pattern frequencies as normals. In any case, the feasibility of a type approach with the CPI seems promising enough to encourage future inquiries. SUMMARYCPI scale scores were correlated with specially-scored CPI factor scales, and the results indicated that such factor scores could be estimated reasonably by the standard scales. By the use of CPI scales as measures of the two major factors of that instrument, the incidence of profile types in a normal sample was tabulated. For both males and females, six types accounted for SOY0 of the protocols: the first three types accounted for over 50% of the individuals. It was suggested that this type of analysis might contribute to interpretation of CPI protocols. MARKS, P. A, and SEEMAN, W. The Actuarial Description ofA b n m l Personality. Balitrnore: 5. MEOARGEE, E. I. The California Psychological Invent0 y Handbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 6. MITCHELL, J. V., JR. and PIERCE-JONES, J. A factor analysis of Gough's California Psychologi-7. NICHOLS, R. C. and SCHNELL, R. R. Factor scales for the California Psychological Inventory.
Eeports of the use of behavior niodification in the classroom are reviewed, with special attention given to the question of whether or not generalization of the efferts of the behavior modification programs was obtained. Those programs in which generalization across time, settings, or behaviors was observed were found to differ from other programs in several important ways. These differences were utilized in formulating a set of 15 proposed ''rules" for obtaining generalization of the effects of behavior modification procedures.It is suggested that these "rules" be used to make behavior modification more effective, both clinically and practically.
Suicide is a complex behavior that involves a large number of both known and unknown variables. Shneidman(9) reported on suicidal notes and statements as factors in the understanding of suicidal gestures. Stone'lO) described a suicide precipitated by psychotherapy, and Mintz'') reported on a case in which psychotherapy prevented a suicide. Many authors'', 6, 8 , have attempted to delineate the most salient factors, internal and exteinal, that are involved in the motivation for suicide. Similarly, treatment of the suicidal patient has ranged from traditional psychoanalytic therapy to many forms of chemotherapy, with varying degrees of success. A survey of the literature revealed no studies in which systematic desensitization procedures were used in the treatment of a suicidal patient.The present study was conducted t o determine whether spontaneous suicidal behaviors could be eliminated by a multiple-therapy approach. The first approach, it novel modification of the systematic desensitization technique, involved the pairing of target stimuli with specific muscular states. This technique was developed and first used by the senior author. ( 5 ) I n a later treatment series, traditional systematic desensitization of reported disturbing thoughts was employed. PROCEDUREThe S was a 14-year-old, Caucasian female of average intelligence who was first hospitalized in November 1969. The home environment was so bad that a t age 7 she was removed from the home and placed in a Children's Home. After several attempts to run away from the Children's Home, she was transferred to a Juvenile Detention Home. While there, she attempted suicide repeatedly by cutting her wrists. She subsequently was transferred to a general hospital, and upon the staff's recommendation then was admitted t o Central State Hospital. At the time of her admission to the hospital, the S'S mother lived with her third husband. While on home visits, her half-brother attempted to rape the S on several occasions and succeeded once.Upon admission to Central State Hospital, the S had approximately 25 scars on her left arm that ranged from her wrist to her shoulder, all severe enough to have required stitches. During a clinical interview, the S reported that her suicide attempts were evoked by two main events: (a) when she became angry or upset, and (b) when she was alone and began to think about her past. At such times, she became anxious and depressed and engaged in suicidal behavior. I n spite of close observation on the hospital ward, the S has been able to borrow, find, or steal a sharp object that subsequently has been used to cut herself.It should be noted that the only identifiable form of suicide attempt has been cutting. Although she had been exposed t o a number of therapists, there had been no change in her suicidal behavior prior to +he treatment described in this paper.During all treatment sessions, the S was seated in a comfortable chair. Two photographs were employed. The first photograph depicted the S engaged in appropriate social interaction with...
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