We report the realization of vibrational photoacoustic (VPA) microscopy using optical excitation of molecular overtone vibration and acoustic detection of the resultant pressure transients. Our approach eliminates the tissue scattering problem encountered in near-infrared spectroscopy and enables depth-resolved signal collection. The 2nd overtone of the CH bond stretch around 8300 cm −1, where blood interference is minimal, is excited. We demonstrate 3D VPA imaging of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques by excitation from the artery lumen, and lipid storage in live Drosophila larvae, with millimeter-scale penetration depth.
Gas-phase temperatures and concentrations are measured from the magnitude and decay of the initial Raman coherence in femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). A time-delayed probe beam is scattered from the Raman polarization induced by pump and Stokes beams to generate CARS signal; the dephasing rate of this initial coherence is determined by the temperature-sensitive frequency spread of the Raman transitions. Temperature is measured from the CARS signal decrease with increasing probe delay. Concentration is found from the ratio of the CARS and nonresonant background signals. Collision rates do not affect the determination of these quantities.
Single-laser-shot temperature measurements at a data rate of 1 kHz employing femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy of N(2) are demonstrated. The measurements are performed using a chirped-probe pulse to map the time-dependent frequency-spread dephasing of the Raman coherence, which is created by approximately 80-fs pump and Stokes beams, into the spectrum of the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal pulse. Temperature is determined from the spectral shape of the fs-CARS signal for probe delays of approximately 2 ps with respect to the pump-Stokes excitation. The accuracy and precision of the measurements for the 300-2400 K range are found to be approximately 1%-6% and approximately 1.5%-3%, respectively.
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