Purpose To determine the incidence of alloimmunization against red cell antigens and the thermal amplitude and specifi city of antibodies in multitransfused patients and multiparous women.Methods Antibody screening was performed in 30 nontransfused orthopedic surgery cases (control), 504 multitransfused patients and 325 multiparous women. Antibody screening at 4°C, 22°C and 37°C was carried out in a saline phase, by indirect antiglobulin technique (IAT), using papain cystein, low ionic strength solution (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG).
ResultsIn multitransfused patients IgM antibodies were more frequently detected at 4°C and the IgG antibody incidence was 7.1% by enzyme method, 7.7% IAT, 9.4% LISS, 10.2% using PEG & 10.2% multiparous women. Bad obstetric history cases had signifi cantly higher incidence of alloimmunization. The antibody specifi city of antibodies was mainly in Lewis, Rh, Kidd and MN systems.Conclusion Antibody screening before transfusion, at set time intervals after transfusion and during antenatal period is recommended.
Background:Storage time of blood components plays a major role in the accumulation of cytokines causing adverse transfusion reactions.Aims:The aim was to study the trend in the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and regulated upon activation, normal T-cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) during storage of whole blood (WB) and red cell concentrate (RCC) and to study the effect of leukoreduction (LR).Materials and Methods:WB sample was taken on 0, 7, 14, 21, and between 28 and 35 days and plasma aliquots were frozen. Samples from RCC and buffy-coat depleted RCC prepared using Optipress II were collected on 0, 7, 14, 21 and between 28 and 35 days. Cytokine estimation was done using ELISA development kits. Normal range of cytokines was established using 0 day samples of WB. Statistical analysis was done using nonparametric tests.Results and Conclusion:The normal range of IL-6 was 0-23 pg/ml, IL-8 0-12 pg/ml, TNF-α 0-3 pg/ml, and RANTES 1200-2000 pg/ml. IL-6 was in normal range and showed a decreasing trend during storage. IL-8 levels increased significantly from 0 to 35 days. In RCC, the highest level was 480 pg/ml on 28th day. It was in the normal range in buffy-coat depleted RCC up to 28 days. RANTES level was significantly low in buffy-coat depleted RCC compared to RCC. We conclude that WB has high levels of IL-8 and RANTES. The levels of cytokines are affected by storage period and LR. Comparison of WB and buffy-coat depleted RCC shows significantly low levels of IL-6, IL-8, and RANTES in buffy-coat depleted RCC. This study emphasizes the use of red cell components instead of WB and buffy-coat depleted RCC instead of RCC.
Transfusion associated sepsis cases are encountered occasionally and bacterial transmission remains the major cause. The goal of our study was to compare the efficacy of disinfectants in phlebotomy site preparation. After selection of donor the antecubital fossa area of the arm was disinfected with different types of disinfectants namely sprit (70% isopropyl alcohol), povidone iodine (0.5% w/v available iodine in distilled water), savlon (1.5% v/v chlorhexidine gluconate solution and 3.0% cetrimide solution) and combination of sprit and povidone iodine. Swabs were collected from 20 donors using a sterile forceps, after cleaning with different antiseptic solutions. Swab was streaked on blood agar plate aseptically and the plate was incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Colonies were counted and a single colony was recultured by growing on nutrient and Mac-Conkey agar. The biochemical characteristics were determined by performing Gram staining, Motility, Catalase and Oxidase tests. The mean values of colonies were significantly higher with savlon compared to other three solutions. The difference was statistically significant by ''t'' test (t values 1.7-3.0; P \ 0.05). Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus were the organisms identified. After completion of bleeding, samples from the bag were aseptically inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles to be tested on BacT/Alert system. The bag containing donor's blood did not show any contamination when three cleanings were carried out using sprit, povidone iodine and spirit respectively.
To analyze the reason for discarding whole blood and red cell concentrates in a Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in India. Retrospective analysis of electronic data on collection of blood and reason for discard of whole blood and red cell concentrate between January 2012 and December 2016. 1,70,431 units of blood were collected between January 2012 and December 2016 in various blood donation camps. On an average 6.60% whole blood or red cell units were discarded because of various reasons. Out dating was the single important cause for discarding such units leading to loss of 6.7-7 million rupees (USD 1,00,000) to the blood bank. Infective units, haemolysed units, insufficient amount collected units and leakage were other important causes for discarding the units. Using multiple approaches of donor selection, staff training rescheduling of blood camps and sharing this precious resource with other blood bank can significantly minimize the discard rate. The reasons for discard of blood units varied not only from one blood centre to other but also from one country to another.
Contaminating white blood cells in stored platelet concentrate (PC) are the source of many pro-inflammatory cytokines. These are implicated in transfusion reactions. To study the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) at different time interval in PC prepared byplatelet rich plasma (PRP) and buffy coat (BC) using different principles. Fifteen PCs were prepared by both the methods. The supernatants of PCs prepared by PRP and BC methods were collected aseptically after 1, 18, 65 and 112 h of preparation. pH, platelet and WBC counts were done. The supernatants were frozen in aliquots at -56°C for measurement of IL-8 and TNF-a concentration using ELISA. The Mean ± SD value of WBC in PRP-PC was 7.4 ± 3.75 9 10 7 and in BC-PC 3.9 ± 2.2 9 10 7
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