Purpose To develop and evaluate the feasibility of deep learning approaches for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based attenuation correction (AC) (termed deep MRAC) in brain positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging. Materials and Methods A PET/MR imaging AC pipeline was built by using a deep learning approach to generate pseudo computed tomographic (CT) scans from MR images. A deep convolutional auto-encoder network was trained to identify air, bone, and soft tissue in volumetric head MR images coregistered to CT data for training. A set of 30 retrospective three-dimensional T1-weighted head images was used to train the model, which was then evaluated in 10 patients by comparing the generated pseudo CT scan to an acquired CT scan. A prospective study was carried out for utilizing simultaneous PET/MR imaging for five subjects by using the proposed approach. Analysis of covariance and paired-sample t tests were used for statistical analysis to compare PET reconstruction error with deep MRAC and two existing MR imaging-based AC approaches with CT-based AC. Results Deep MRAC provides an accurate pseudo CT scan with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.971 ± 0.005 for air, 0.936 ± 0.011 for soft tissue, and 0.803 ± 0.021 for bone. Furthermore, deep MRAC provides good PET results, with average errors of less than 1% in most brain regions. Significantly lower PET reconstruction errors were realized with deep MRAC (-0.7% ± 1.1) compared with Dixon-based soft-tissue and air segmentation (-5.8% ± 3.1) and anatomic CT-based template registration (-4.8% ± 2.2). Conclusion The authors developed an automated approach that allows generation of discrete-valued pseudo CT scans (soft tissue, bone, and air) from a single high-spatial-resolution diagnostic-quality three-dimensional MR image and evaluated it in brain PET/MR imaging. This deep learning approach for MR imaging-based AC provided reduced PET reconstruction error relative to a CT-based standard within the brain compared with current MR imaging-based AC approaches. RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Purpose: To describe and evaluate a new fully automated musculoskeletal tissue segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and three-dimensional (3D) simplex deformable modeling to improve the accuracy and efficiency of cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. Methods: A fully automated segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A CNN technique called SegNet was applied as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification. The 3D simplex deformable modeling refined the output from SegNet to preserve the overall shape and maintain a desirable smooth surface for musculoskeletal structure. The fully automated segmentation method was tested using a publicly available knee image data set to compare with currently used state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The fully automated method was also evaluated on two different data sets, which include morphological and quantitative MR images with different tissue contrasts. Results: The proposed fully automated segmentation method provided good segmentation performance with segmentation accuracy superior to most of state-of-the-art methods in the publicly available knee image data set. The method also demonstrated versatile segmentation performance on both morphological and quantitative musculoskeletal MR images with different tissue contrasts and spatial resolutions. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the combined CNN and 3D deformable modeling approach is useful for performing rapid and accurate cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. The CNN has promising potential applications in musculoskeletal imaging.
FSE-Cube has similar diagnostic performance as a routine MR imaging protocol for detecting cartilage lesions, cruciate ligament tears, collateral ligament tears, meniscal tears, and bone marrow edema lesions within the knee joint at 3.0 T.
Previously described MR imaging criteria for OCD instability have high specificity for adult but not juvenile lesions of the knee.
PURPOSE Knee osteoarthritis is a common, debilitating chronic disease. Prolotherapy is an injection therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conducted a 3-arm, blinded (injector, assessor, injection group participants), randomized controlled trial to assess the effi cacy of prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis. METHODSNinety adults with at least 3 months of painful knee osteoarthritis were randomized to blinded injection (dextrose prolotherapy or saline) or athome exercise. Extra-and intra-articular injections were done at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed additional treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Exercise participants received an exercise manual and in-person instruction. Outcome measures included a composite score on the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; 100 points); knee pain scale (KPS; individual knee), postprocedure opioid medication use, and participant satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analysis using analysis of variance was used.RESULTS No baseline differences existed between groups. All groups reported improved composite WOMAC scores compared with baseline status (P <.01) at 52 weeks. Adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index, WOMAC scores for patients receiving dextrose prolotherapy improved more (P <.05) at 52 weeks than did scores for patients receiving saline and exercise (score change: 15.3 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 3.4, and 8.2 ± 3.3 points, respectively) and exceeded the WOMAC-based minimal clinically important difference. Individual knee pain scores also improved more in the prolotherapy group (P = .05). Use of prescribed postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of injection-related pain. Satisfaction with prolotherapy was high. There were no adverse events.CONCLUSIONS Prolotherapy resulted in clinically meaningful sustained improvement of pain, function, and stiffness scores for knee osteoarthritis compared with blinded saline injections and at-home exercises. Ann Fam Med 2013;11:229-237. doi:10.1370/afm.1504. INTRODUCTIONK nee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease resulting in joint pain, stiffness, and decreased function.1 It is common, expensive for patients 2 and society, and age-related 3 ; by age 65 years, most of the population has radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. 4 Sources of pain include intra-articular and supportive extra-articular structures. 5,6 Standard-of-care is multidisciplinary; however, a recent systematic review reported no clear benefi t of any one therapy. 4 Conservative therapies 7 and oral supplements 8,9 have been evaluated but are without clear effi cacy. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has called for the development of new therapies to prevent and treat knee osteoarthritis. 4 Prolotherapy is an injection therapy for chronic musculoskeletal injury, including knee osteoarthritis.  A core principle is the injection of small volumes of an irritant solution at multiple painful ligament and tendon insertions and in adjacent joint spaces over several treatment sessions. 10Prolotherapy has be...
Purpose To determine the feasibility of using a deep learning approach to detect cartilage lesions (including cartilage softening, fibrillation, fissuring, focal defects, diffuse thinning due to cartilage degeneration, and acute cartilage injury) within the knee joint on MR images. Materials and Methods A fully automated deep learning-based cartilage lesion detection system was developed by using segmentation and classification convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin-echo MRI data sets of the knee of 175 patients with knee pain were retrospectively analyzed by using the deep learning method. The reference standard for training the CNN classification was the interpretation provided by a fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist of the presence or absence of a cartilage lesion within 17 395 small image patches placed on the articular surfaces of the femur and tibia. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis and the κ statistic were used to assess diagnostic performance and intraobserver agreement for detecting cartilage lesions for two individual evaluations performed by the cartilage lesion detection system. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the cartilage lesion detection system at the optimal threshold according to the Youden index were 84.1% and 85.2%, respectively, for evaluation 1 and 80.5% and 87.9%, respectively, for evaluation 2. Areas under the ROC curve were 0.917 and 0.914 for evaluations 1 and 2, respectively, indicating high overall diagnostic accuracy for detecting cartilage lesions. There was good intraobserver agreement between the two individual evaluations, with a κ of 0.76. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a fully automated deep learning-based cartilage lesion detection system to evaluate the articular cartilage of the knee joint with high diagnostic performance and good intraobserver agreement for detecting cartilage degeneration and acute cartilage injury. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article .
The combined CNN, 3D fully connected CRF, and 3D deformable modeling approach was well-suited for performing rapid and accurate comprehensive tissue segmentation of the knee joint. The deep learning-based segmentation method has promising potential applications in musculoskeletal imaging.
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