logical awareness is demonstrated by successful performance on tasks such as tapping out the number of sounds in a word, reversing the order of sounds in a word, and putting together sounds presented in isolation to form a word (Lewkowicz, 1980). To an individual with well-developed phonological awareness, our alphabetic system-which conveys language at the phonological level-is a reasonable approach to visually representing our spoken language. Conversely, an individual lacking such awareness will find the correspondence between symbol and sound capricious at best (see, e.g., Liberman, Rubin, Duques, & Carlisle, in press, for a recent presentation of this argument).
Results from a longitudinal correlational study of 244 children from kindergarten through 2nd grade indicate that young children’s phonological processing abilities are well-described by 5 correlated latent abilities: phonological analysis, phonological synthesis, phonological coding in working memory, isolated naming, and serial naming. These abilities are characterized by different developmental rates and remarkably stable individual differences. Decoding did not exert a causal influence on subsequent phonological processing abilities, but letter-name knowledge did. Causal relations between phonological processing abilities and reading-related knowledge are bidirectional: Phonological processing abilities exert strong causal influences on word decoding; letter-name knowledge exerts a more modest causal influence on subsequent phonological processing abilities.
The relative effectiveness of 3 instructional approaches for the prevention of reading disabilities in young children with weak phonological skills was examined. Two programs varying in the intensity of instruction in phonemic decoding were contrasted with each other and with a 3rd approach that supported the children's regular classroom reading program. The children were provided with 88 hr of one-to-one instruction beginning the second semester of kindergarten and extending through 2nd grade. The most phonemically explicit condition produced the strongest growth in word level reading skills, but there were no differences between groups in reading comprehension. Word level skills of children in the strongest group were in the middle of the average range. Growth curve analyses showed that beginning phonological skills, home background, and ratings of classroom behavior all predicted unique variance in growth of word level skills.This study was designed to contribute to our understanding of the instructional conditions that need to be in place to prevent reading disabilities in young children. Both the specific design of the study and the questions it addressed were derived from previous research and theory in two areas. The broadest context of the study is the new understanding of reading and reading disabilities we have acquired from research over the past 20 years (Adams, 1990;Metsala & Ehri, 1998), and the more focused context is previous research on instructional methods that accelerate reading development in young children who are either experiencing or are at risk for reading failure (Foorman,
We carried out three experiments to examine the role of tacit knowledge (knowledge that usually is not openly expressed or taught) in intellectual competence in real-world pursuits. In Experiment 1, subjects were divided into three groups, whose 187 members differed in amounts of experience and formal training in academic psychology. Differences in tacit knowledge useful for managing oneself, others, and one's career were related to criterion measures of performance for both academic psychologists and psychology graduate students. In Experiment 2, the subjects were 127 individuals differing in amounts of experience and formal training in business management. Differences in tacit knowledge were related to criterion measures of performance for business managers. In Experiment 3, the results of the second experiment were cross-validated on a group of 29 bank managers for whom detailed performance evaluation information was available. Again, tacit knowledge differences were related to criterion measures of job performance. Tacit knowledge was not related to verbal intelligence as measured by a standard verbal reasoning test. We conclude that a comprehensive theory of practical intelligence in real-world pursuits will encompass general aptitudes, formal knowledge, and tacit knowledge that is used in managing oneself, others, and one's career.
Two unique measures of morphological awareness, along with other reading-related tasks, were orally administered to 100 kindergarten and 100 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. These morphological awareness tasks were developed on the basis of 2 special properties of Chinese: (a) the relatively large number of homophones requires speakers to distinguish unique meanings in syllables with identical sounds, and (b) complex vocabulary words are often built from 2 or more previously learned morphemes. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary. Developmentally, both tasks of morphological awareness improved with age. Results demonstrate that morphological awareness is uniquely important for early Chinese character recognition.
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