The increase of distributed energy resources, mainly based on renewable sources, requires new solutions that are able to deal with this type of resources' particular characteristics (namely, the renewable energy sources intermittent nature). The smart grid concept is increasing its consensus as the most suitable solution to facilitate the small players' participation in electric power negotiations while improving energy efficiency. The opportunity for players' participation in multiple energy negotiation environments (smart grid negotiation in addition to the already implemented market types, such as day-ahead spot markets, balancing markets, intraday negotiations, bilateral contracts, forward and futures negotiations, and among other) requires players to take suitable decisions on whether to, and how to participate in each market type. This paper proposes a portfolio optimization methodology, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities. The amount of power that each supported player should negotiate in each available market type in order to maximize its profits, considers the prices that are expected to be achieved in each market, in different contexts. The price forecasts are performed using artificial neural networks, providing a specific database with the expected prices in the different market types, at each time. This database is then used as input by an evolutionary particle swarm optimization process, which originates the most advantage participation portfolio for the market player. The proposed approach is tested and validated with simulations performed in multiagent simulator of competitive electricity markets, using real electricity markets data from the Iberian operator-MIBEL.
Power systems are showing a dynamic evolution in the last few years, caused in part by the adoption of smart grid technologies. The integration of new elements that represent a source of uncertainty, such as renewables generation, electric vehicles, variable loads and electricity markets, poses a higher degree of complexity causing that traditional mathematical formulations struggle in finding efficient solutions to problems in the smart grid context. In some situations, where traditional approaches fail, computational intelligence has demonstrated being a very powerful tool for solving optimization problems. In this paper, we analyze the application of Differential Evolution (DE) to address an energy resource management problem under uncertain environments. We perform a systematic parameter tuning to determine the best set of parameters of four stateof-the-art DE strategies. Having knowledge of the sensitivity of DE to the parameter selection, self-adaptive parameter control DE algorithms are also implemented, showing that competitive results can be achieved without the application of parameter tuning methodologies. Finally, a new hybrid-adaptive DE algorithm, HyDE, which uses a new "DE/target − to − perturbed best/1" strategy and an adaptive control parameter mechanism, is proposed to solve the problem. Results show that DE strategies with fixed parameters, despite very sensitive to the setting, can find better solutions than some adaptive DE versions. Overall, our HyDE algorithm excelled all the other tested algorithms, proving its effectiveness solving a smart grid application under uncertainty.
Demand response as a distributed resource has proved its significant potential for power systems. It is capable of providing flexibility that, in some cases, can be an advantage to suppress the unpredictability of distributed generation. The ability for participating in demand response programs for small or medium facilities has been limited; with the new policy regulations this limitation might be overstated. The prosumers are a new entity that is considered both as producers and consumers of electricity, which can provide excess production to the grid. Moreover, the decision-making in facilities with different generation resources, energy storage systems, and demand flexibility becomes more complex according to the number of considered variables. This paper proposes a demand response optimization methodology for application in a generic residential house. In this model, the users are able to perform actions of demand response in their facilities without any contracts with demand response service providers. The model considers the facilities that have the required devices to carry out the demand response actions. The photovoltaic generation, the available storage capacity, and the flexibility of the loads are used as the resources to find the optimal scheduling of minimal operating costs. The presented results are obtained using a particle swarm optimization and compared with a deterministic resolution in order to prove the performance of the model. The results show that the use of demand response can reduce the operational daily cost.
The current energy strategy of the European Union puts the end-user as a key participant in electricity markets. The creation of energy communities has been encouraged by the European Union to increase the penetration of renewable energy and reduce the overall cost of the energy chain. Energy communities are mostly composed of prosumers, which may be households with small-size energy production equipment such as rooftop photovoltaic panels. The local electricity market is an emerging concept that enables the active participation of end-user in the electricity markets and is especially interesting when energy communities are in place. This paper proposes an optimization model to schedule peer-to-peer transactions via local electricity market, grid transactions in retail market, and battery management considering the photovoltaic production of households. Prosumers have the possibility of transacting energy with the retailer or with other consumers in their community. The problem is modeled using mixed-integer linear programming, containing binary and continuous variables. Four scenarios are studied, and the impact of battery storage systems and peer-to-peer transactions is analyzed. The proposed model execution time according to the number of prosumers involved (3, 5, 10, 15, or 20) in the optimization is analyzed. The results suggest that using a battery storage system in the energy community can lead to energy savings of 11-13%. Besides, combining the use of peer-to-peer transactions and energy storage systems can potentially provide energy savings of up to 25% in the overall costs of the community members.
This paper proposes a novel Case Based Reasoning (CBR) application for intelligent management of energy resources in residential buildings. The proposed CBR approach enables analyzing the history of previous cases of energy reduction in buildings, and using them to provide a suggestion on the ideal level of energy reduction that should be applied in the consumption of houses. The innovations of the proposed CBR model are the application of the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (k-NN) clustering algorithm to identify similar past cases, the adaptation of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) meta-heuristic optimization method to optimize the choice
Hybrid-adaptive differential evolution with decay function (HyDE-DF) applied to the 100-digit challenge competition on single objective numerical optimization
Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal ©Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca / cc by-nc-nd 23 KEYWORD ABSTRACT Artificial intelligence; clustering; electricity markets; fuzzy logic Artificial I ntelligence ( AI) m ethods c ontribute t o th e construction o f systems where there is a need to automate the tasks. They are typically used for problems t hat hav e a large response t ime, or w hen a mathematical method cannot be used to solve t he pr oblem. H owever, t he appl ication o f AI brings an added complexity to the development of such applications. AI has be en f requently appl ied in t he p ower s ystems f ield, n amely in Electricity Markets (EM IntroductionExperiments with Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in the 50s, with Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts, who created a model of artificial neurons (Mcculloch and Pitts, 1943). The first steps of the AI were successful, but had several limitations (e.g. technology and remote programming languages). Computers were seen as machines that only performed mathematical operations, and the fact of having a machine that could think, caused admiration in people. AI tries to offer machines some of the aspects that are intrinsic to human nature. In fact, AI brings to many the image of a future where robots do all the things that a human being is capable of, with the ability to think and analyze, hence be self-sufficient. in reality it became something more present in people's lives than this wishful thinking. This view, that AI is linked to the future is not true, it is present in various segments of society, whether at home, at work, on the street and most of the time goes unnoticed (Alvarado-Pérez et al., 2015;Chamoso and De La Prieta, 2015). In addition to being applied in many branches of societal activities, AI is also applied in the world of electric energy markets, where it is often used to make forecasts of the values to support the market the user's decision . AI tools are indispensable in the operation of electrical energy markets, as they offer support for the user. This need has been growing with the current changes in the electrical sector, such as the power sector restructuring. Competitiveness has been bringing with it new challenges with which the users have to deal (Meeus et al., 2005;Shahidehpour et al., 2002).The development of simulation platforms based in Multi-Agent Systems (MAS), which are integral parts of AI, is increasing as a good option to simulate real systems in which stakeholders have different and often conflicting objectives. These systems allow simulating scenarios and strategies, providing users with decision support according to their profile of activity (Li and Tesfatsion, 2009;Santos et al., 2016). MASCEM -Multi-Agent Simulator for Electricity Markets (Praça et al., 2003) is a simulation tool to study and explore restructured electricity markets. Its purpose is to simulate as many market models and player types as possible. The learning process of its agents is undertaken using MASCEM's connection wit...
This paper proposes a decision support model to optimize small players' negotiations in multiple alternative/complementary market opportunities. The proposed model endows players with the ability to maximize their gains in electricity market negotiations. The proposed approach is integrated in a multi-agent simulation platform, which enables experimenting different market configurations, thus facilitating the assessment of the impact of negotiation outcomes in distinct electricity markets. The proposed model is directed to supporting the actions of small players in a transactive energy environment. Therefore, the experimental findings include negotiations in local markets, negotiations through bilateral contracts, and the participation in wholesale markets (through aggregators). The validation is performed using real data from the Iberian market, and results show that by planning market actions considering the expected prices in different market opportunities, small players are able to improve their benefits from market negotiations.
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